3D printing and bioprinting has witnessed a phenomal rise in the fields of tissue engineering and regeneraive medicine over the past few years. Additive manufacturing techniques offer researchers a unique toolset to recapitulate the spatial complexity and heterogeneity of native tissue at both nano and micro scale. More importantly, it allows researchers to combine multiple elements - matrix proteins, cells, biomolecules - in a single construct in precise patterns to develop relevant in vitro models. In 2019 alone, over a 1000 citations involving 3D printing can be found. However, due to the nascent nature of this field, every research lab has developed their own specalized bioinks that are printable under specialized conditions using either custom-made or commercially available 3D printers. Consequently, this has led to the existence of a massive knowledge base regarding 3D printable materials and their printing conditions, scattered across several journal articles and under different topics. This poses a challenge for researchers who wish to apply new, or established 3D printing techniques, and want a reliable source of information regarding 3D printing conditions. 

Thus, we have developed a public repository/database of  articles involving 3D printing in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine that is easily searchable by any user who wishes to enter this field. This database is free for use, and is aimed at systematically collating the complex set of parameters that dictate material 3D printing.

Additionally, this database would be best served by the cpontinuous addition of new information. We have created an open survey that allows users to enter their published information regarding their 3D printing and bioprinting conditions, which would then be added to this database. Please note that the current database is limited only to extrusion-based 3D printing. We are working on a database for other printing techniques. Thank you for your patience! 

Select a material below to view all associated publications, printing conditions, and heat maps to help visualize the 3D printing parameter space. 

DOI Components Pressure Temperature (C) Speed (mm/s) Needle Cells (e6/ml) Additional notes
10.1002/jbm.b.34347
  • Polystyrene [100 wt%]
900 kPa1553 - 5 400 µm Cylindrical
10.1002/jbm.b.34347
  • Glass Sugar [100 wt%]
70 kPa - 80 kPa15010 - 30 300 µm Cylindrical
10.1021/acsbiomaterials.6b00031
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [5 wt%]
0.5 bar2310 400 µm Cylindrical BeWo Cytotrophoblasts (10) fibronectin added
10.1021/acsbiomaterials.6b00031
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [10 wt%]
0.7 bar2810 400 µm Cylindrical BeWo Cytotrophoblasts (10) fibronectin added
10.1002/bit.26850
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [10 wt%]
0.5 bar - 1 bar2310 400 µm Cylindrical Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (10) fibronectin added
10.1002/jbm.a.36350
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [10 wt%]
0.5 bar - 1 bar2310 400 µm Cylindrical BeWo Cytotrophoblasts (2) fibronectin, placental dECM added
10.1088/1758-5090/ab078a
  • Fibrinogen [10 wt%]
  • Gelatin [5 wt%]
0.5 bar - 2 bar22 - 262 - 10 400 µm Conical Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (2)
10.1088/1758-5090/ab078a
  • Fibrinogen [10 wt%]
  • Gelatin [5 wt%]
0.5 bar - 2 bar22 - 262 - 10 400 µm Conical Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells (2)
10.1088/1758-5090/ab078a
  • PCL [100 wt%]
5 bar1202 400 µm Cylindrical PCL molecular weight = 43,000.
10.1089/ten.tec.2019.0112
  • PCL [100 wt%]
4.5 bar1601.3 22 Gauge Cylindrical PCL molecular weight = 50 kDa
10.1089/ten.tec.2019.0112
  • PCL [100 wt%]
5 bar16012 24 Gauge Cylindrical PCL molecular weight = 50 kDa
10.1089/ten.tec.2019.0112
  • PCL [100 wt%]
5.5 bar1601 27 Gauge Cylindrical PCL molecular weight = 50 kDa
10.1089/ten.tec.2019.0112
  • PCL [85 wt%]
  • Hydroxyapatite [15 wt%]
4.5 bar1601.2 22 Gauge Cylindrical PCL molecular weight = 50 kDa
10.1089/ten.tec.2019.0112
  • PCL [85 wt%]
  • Hydroxyapatite [15 wt%]
5 bar1600.5 24 Gauge Cylindrical PCL molecular weight = 50 kDa
10.1089/ten.tec.2019.0112
  • PCL [85 wt%]
  • Hydroxyapatite [15 wt%]
5.5 bar1600.8 27 Gauge Cylindrical PCL molecular weight = 50 kDa
10.1089/ten.tec.2019.0112
  • PCL [70 wt%]
  • Hydroxyapatite [30 wt%]
5 bar1601 22 Gauge Cylindrical PCL molecular weight = 50 kDa
10.1089/ten.tec.2019.0112
  • PCL [70 wt%]
  • Hydroxyapatite [30 wt%]
5.5 bar1600.8 24 Gauge Cylindrical PCL molecular weight = 50 kDa
10.1089/ten.tec.2019.0112
  • PCL [70 wt%]
  • Hydroxyapatite [30 wt%]
6.5 bar1600.5 27 Gauge Cylindrical PCL molecular weight = 50 kDa
10.1016/j.actbio.2019.03.041
  • PCL [100 wt%]
5 bar1601.2 22 Gauge Cylindrical PCL molecular weight = 50 kDa
10.1016/j.actbio.2019.03.041
  • PCL [85 wt%]
  • Hydroxyapatite [15 wt%]
5 bar1600.9 22 Gauge Cylindrical PCL molecular weight = 50 kDa
10.1016/j.actbio.2019.03.041
  • PCL [70 wt%]
  • Hydroxyapatite [30 wt%]
5.5 bar1600.8 22 Gauge Cylindrical PCL molecular weight = 50 kDa
10.1089/ten.tec.2018.0307
  • PCL [100 wt%]
5 bar1601.2 22 Gauge Cylindrical PCL molecular weight = 50 kDa
10.1089/ten.tec.2018.0307
  • PCL [70 wt%]
  • Hydroxyapatite [30 wt%]
5.7 bar1600.5 22 Gauge Cylindrical PCL molecular weight = 50 kDa
10.1089/ten.tec.2018.0307
  • PCL [70 wt%]
  • B-Tricalcium Phosphate [30 wt%]
5.5 bar1600.8 22 Gauge Cylindrical PCL molecular weight = 50 kDa
10.1089/ten.tec.2018.0307
  • PCL [70 wt%]
  • Hydroxyapatite [15 wt%]
  • B-Tricalcium Phosphate [15 wt%]
5.7 bar1600.7 22 Gauge Cylindrical PCL molecular weight = 50 kDa
10.1088/1758-5090/aa6370
  • PLGA [100 wt%]
9 bar1101.5 200 µm Cylindrical LA:GA = 50:50, 9.73 kDa, ester endcap
10.1088/1758-5090/aa6370
  • PLGA [100 wt%]
9 bar1350.7 200 µm Cylindrical LA:GA = 50:50, 30.3 kDa, ester endcap
10.1088/1758-5090/aa6370
  • PLGA [100 wt%]
9 bar1650.7 200 µm Cylindrical LA:GA = 60:40, 42.6 kDa, ester endcap
10.1088/1758-5090/aa6370
  • PLGA [100 wt%]
9 bar1501.5 200 µm Cylindrical LA:GA = 60:40, 33.8 kDa, Acid cap
10.1088/1758-5090/aa6370
  • PLGA [100 wt%]
9 bar1700.5 200 µm Cylindrical LA:GA = 85:15, 61.9kDa, ester cap
10.1088/1758-5090/aa6370
  • PLGA [100 wt%]
7.5 bar951.5 400 µm Cylindrical LA:GA = 50:50, 9.73 kDa, ester cap
10.1088/1758-5090/aa6370
  • PLGA [100 wt%]
8 bar1251.5 400 µm Cylindrical LA:GA = 50:50, 30.3 kDa, Ester endcap
10.1088/1758-5090/aa6370
  • PLGA [100 wt%]
9 bar1400.5 400 µm Cylindrical LA:GA = 60:40, 42.6 kDa, Ester endcap
10.1088/1758-5090/aa6370
  • PLGA [100 wt%]
8 bar1301 400 µm Cylindrical LA:GA = 60:40, 33.8 kDa, acid endcap
10.1088/1758-5090/aa6370
  • PLGA [100 wt%]
8 bar1450.5 400 µm Cylindrical LA:GA = 85:15, 61.9 kDa, ester endcap
10.1002/jbm.a.36426
  • PLGA [100 wt%]
9 bar1654 200 µm Cylindrical LA:GA = 85:15, 35 kD
10.1016/j.biomaterials.2018.09.022
  • PLCL [85 wt%]
  • PLGA [15 wt%]
6.5 bar1554.2 200 µm Cylindrical Lactic Acid: Caprolactone = 70:30. 45-55kD
10.1088/1758-5090/8/4/045015
  • Polyurethane [40 wt%]
250 kPa251.67 200 µm Cylindrical
10.1038/nbt.3413
  • Gelatin [35 mg/mL]
  • Fibrinogen [20 mg/mL]
  • Hyaluronic Acid [3 mg/mL]
  • Glycerol [10%]
50 kPa - 80 kPa181 - 3 300 µm Conical Human Amniotic Fluid-derived Stem cells (5)
10.1038/nbt.3413
  • Gelatin [45 mg/mL]
  • Fibrinogen [30 mg/mL]
  • Hyaluronic Acid [3 mg/mL]
  • Glycerol [10%]
50 kPa - 80 kPa181 - 3 300 µm Conical Primary Rabbit Ear Chondrocytes (40)
10.1038/nbt.3413
  • Gelatin [35 mg/mL]
  • Fibrinogen [20 mg/mL]
  • Hyaluronic Acid [3 mg/mL]
  • Glycerol [10%]
50 kPa - 80 kPa181 - 3 300 µm Conical C2C12 Myoblasts (3)
10.1038/nbt.3413
  • PCL [100 wt%]
800 kPa95 250 µm Conical PCL Mw = 43,000 - 50,000.
10.1038/nbt.3413
  • Pluronic F127 [33 wt%]
  • Glycerol [10%]
200 kPa18 250 µm Conical
10.1016/j.actbio.2018.02.007
  • Fibrinogen [20 mg/mL]
  • Gelatin [30 mg/mL]
  • Hyaluronic Acid [3 mg/mL]
  • Glycerol [10%]
100 kPa181.67 200 µm Conical Primary Neonatal Rat Ventricular Cardiomyocytes (10)
10.1016/j.actbio.2018.02.007
  • PCL [100 wt%]
750 kPa981.67 300 µm Conical PCL Mw = 43,000 - 50,000.
10.1038/s41598-018-29968-5
  • Fibrinogen [20 mg/mL]
  • Gelatin [35 mg/mL]
  • Hyaluronic Acid [3 mg/mL]
  • Glycerol [10%]
50 kPa - 70 kPa181.5 300 µm Conical Primary Human Muscle Progenitor Cells (30)
10.1038/s41598-018-29968-5
  • Gelatin [35 mg/mL]
  • Hyaluronic Acid [3 mg/mL]
  • Glycerol [10%]
50 kPa - 80 kPa182.67 300 µm Conical
10.1038/s41598-018-29968-5
  • PCL [100 wt%]
780 kPa951.25 300 µm Conical PCL Mw = 43,000 - 50,000.
10.1016/j.bprint.2018.e00028
  • Hyaluronic Acid [3 mg/mL]
  • Gelatin [30 mg/mL]
  • Fibrinogen [20 mg/mL]
  • Glycerol [10%]
60 kPa181 - 3 300 µm Conical Human Epidermal Keratinocytes (10)
10.1016/j.bprint.2018.e00028
  • Hyaluronic Acid [3 mg/mL]
  • Gelatin [30 mg/mL]
  • Fibrinogen [20 mg/mL]
  • Glycerol [10%]
60 kPa181 - 3 300 µm Conical Human Epidermal Fibroblasts (5)
10.1016/j.bprint.2018.e00028
  • Polyurethane [100 wt%]
1500 kPa1603.34 - 6.67 200 µm Conical
10.1002/bit.26514
  • Hydroxyapatite [60 wt%]
  • B-Tricalcium Phosphate [40 wt%]
600 kPa1.67 610 µm Conical
10.1002/bit.26514
  • Hydroxyapatite [60 wt%]
  • B-Tricalcium Phosphate [40 wt%]
  • Zirconium oxide [10 wt%]
600 kPa1.67 610 µm Conical
10.1089/ten.tec.2019.0217
  • Polystyrene [100 wt%]
900 kPa1553 - 5 400 µm Cylindrical
10.1089/ten.tec.2019.0218
  • Glass Sugar [100 wt%]
70 kPa - 80 kPa15510 - 30 300 µm Cylindrical
10.1016/j.bprint.2020.e00076
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [7.5 wt%]
0.4 bar234 27 Gauge Conical L929 Fibroblasts (1) These conditions are compatible with engraving technology. Due to the low viscosity of the ink it might not be possible to be printed without a "mold" (i.e. engraved fiber) or sacrificial material
10.1089/ten.tea.2019.0204
  • PCL [90 wt%]
  • Hydroxyapatite [10 wt%]
5.2 bar1601.1 22 Gauge Cylindrical
10.1089/ten.tea.2019.0204
  • PCL [80 wt%]
  • Hydroxyapatite [10 wt%]
  • B-Tricalcium Phosphate [10 wt%]
6 bar1601.3 22 Gauge Cylindrical
10.1089/ten.tea.2019.0204
  • PCL [70 wt%]
  • Hydroxyapatite [10 wt%]
  • B-Tricalcium Phosphate [20 wt%]
6.2 bar1600.7 22 Gauge Cylindrical
10.1021/acsbiomaterials.6b00026
  • Polypropylene fumarate (PPF) [85 wt%]
  • Diethyl fumarate (DEF) [15 wt%]
2 bar - 4 bar555 - 20 250 µm Conical
10.1021/acsbiomaterials.6b00026
  • Polypropylene fumarate (PPF) [90 wt%]
  • Diethyl fumarate (DEF) [10 wt%]
2 bar - 4 bar555 - 10 250 µm Conical
10.1080/09205063.2017.1286184
  • Polypropylene fumarate (PPF) [75 wt%]
  • Diethyl fumarate (DEF) [12 wt%]
  • Hydroxyapatite [10 wt%]
  • SDS/DMSO [3 wt%]
0.4 bar - 0.8 bar55 - 651.5 - 10 18 Gauge Conical
10.1080/09205063.2017.1286184
  • Polypropylene fumarate (PPF) [76 wt%]
  • Diethyl fumarate (DEF) [12 wt%]
  • Hydroxyapatite [10 wt%]
0.4 bar - 0.8 bar55 - 651.5 - 10 18 Gauge Conical
10.1080/09205063.2017.1286184
  • Polypropylene fumarate (PPF) [75 wt%]
  • Diethyl fumarate (DEF) [15 wt%]
0.3 bar - 0.3 bar50 - 5012 - 12 18 Gauge Conical
10.1080/09205063.2017.1286184
  • Polypropylene fumarate (PPF) [82 wt%]
  • Diethyl fumarate (DEF) [15 wt%]
  • Hydroxyapatite [1.25 wt%]
0.4 bar - 0.8 bar55 - 651.5 - 10 18 Gauge Conical
10.1080/09205063.2017.1286184
  • Polypropylene fumarate (PPF) [82 wt%]
  • Diethyl fumarate (DEF) [14 wt%]
  • Hydroxyapatite [2.5 wt%]
0.4 bar - 0.8 bar55 - 651.5 - 10 18 Gauge Conical
10.1080/09205063.2017.1286184
  • Polypropylene fumarate (PPF) [79 wt%]
  • Diethyl fumarate (DEF) [14 wt%]
  • Hydroxyapatite [5 wt%]
0.4 bar - 0.8 bar55 - 651.5 - 10 18 Gauge Conical
10.1080/09205063.2017.1286184
  • Polypropylene fumarate (PPF) [75 wt%]
  • Diethyl fumarate (DEF) [13 wt%]
  • Hydroxyapatite [10 wt%]
0.4 bar - 0.8 bar55 - 651.5 - 10 18 Gauge Conical
10.1021/acsbiomaterials.6b00641
  • Polypropylene fumarate (PPF) [85 wt%]
  • Diethyl fumarate (DEF) [15 wt%]
0.8 bar - 1.6 bar55 - 555 - 5 340 µm Conical
10.1002/adfm.201907145
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [7.5 wt%]
0.8 bar - 1.3 bar19 - 236 400 µm Cylindrical Primary Human Dermal Fibroblasts (2) Each layer was exposed to UV for 5 secs directly after printing. This helped stabilize the print's large, complex shape of a nose throughout the 6 hour print duration time. Intermittent UV exposure was crucial for a successful print.
10.1002/adfm.201907145
  • PEG Norbornene [5 wt%]
  • PEG thiol [5 wt%]
  • Alginate [4 wt%]
3.5 bar - 4.5 bar26 - 266 400 µm Cylindrical
10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.119.316155
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [10 wt%]
  • Collagen Methacrylated [0.25 wt%]
  • Laminin [0.09375 mg/mL]
  • Fibronectin [0.09375 mg/mL]
28 kPa - 38 kPa2710 26 Gauge Cylindrical hiPSCs (15) Printed in gelatin slurry. Crosslinked during printing, followed by 20 seconds crosslinking on each six sides of print.
10.1016/j.bprint.2016.08.003
  • Cellulose Nanofibrillated [2 wt%]
  • Alginate [0.5 wt%]
40 kPa235 300 µm Cylindrical Primary Human Nasoseptal Cartilage (20) Constructs were crosslinked with 100mM CaCl2 for 10 minutes.
10.1007/s10856-019-6258-2
  • Pluronic F127 [60 wt%]
  • Collagen [6 wt%]
50 kPa - 85 kPa373.333 337 µm Cylindrical Primary Rat Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (10)
10.1089/ten.TEC.2020.0053
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [5 wt%]
300 kPa226 260 µm Cylindrical Primary Rat Bone Mesenchymal Stem Cells (5) Cooling system implemented for the receiving platform.
10.3390/bioengineering5030055
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [5 wt%]
  • Alginate-2-Hydroxyethyl Methacrylate [3 wt%]
3.8 psi374.333 400 µm Cylindrical Construct crosslinked with Irgacure 2959 (0.1 wt%, .12mW/cm2) post print
10.3390/bioengineering5030055
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [5 wt%]
  • Silicate Nanoparticles [1 wt%]
2.8 psi304.333 400 µm Cylindrical Construct crosslinked with Irgacure 2959 (0.1 wt%, .12mW/cm2) post print
10.1039/C9BM01271K
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [4 wt%]
  • Chitosan [4 wt%]
400 kPa408 200 µm Cylindrical Construct crosslinked with Irgacure 2959 (0.5 wt%, .50mW/cm2) post print
10.1039/C9BM01271K
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [4 wt%]
  • Chitosan [4 wt%]
500 kPa405 150 µm Cylindrical Construct crosslinked with Irgacure 2959 (0.5 wt%, 50mW/cm2) post print
10.1016/j.jmbbm.2017.12.018
  • Alginate [5 wt%]
  • Gelatin [6 wt%]
103 kPa375 27 Gauge Cylindrical
10.1016/j.jmbbm.2017.12.018
  • Alginate [5 wt%]
  • Gelatin [8 wt%]
172 kPa375 27 Gauge Cylindrical
10.1016/j.jmbbm.2017.12.018
  • Alginate [7 wt%]
  • Gelatin [8 wt%]
193 kPa375 27 Gauge Cylindrical
10.1016/j.jmbbm.2017.12.018
  • Alginate [9 wt%]
  • Gelatin [6 wt%]
276 kPa375 27 Gauge Cylindrical
10.1016/j.jmbbm.2017.12.018
  • Alginate [5 wt%]
  • Gelatin [10 wt%]
310 kPa375 27 Gauge Cylindrical
10.1016/j.jmbbm.2017.12.018
  • Alginate [7 wt%]
  • Gelatin [6 wt%]
186 kPa375 27 Gauge Cylindrical
10.1038/s41598-020-61606-c
  • Alginate [3 wt%]
50 kPa222.5 30 Gauge Cylindrical NIH 3T3 Fibroblasts (1) A pluronic F127 and laponite support bath was used. The bath also contained 1wt% CaCl2 .
10.1007/s42242-020-00076-6
  • Hyaluronic Acid [2 wt%]
  • Alginate [1 wt%]
  • Gelatin [3.75wt%]
3 bar372.3 25 Gauge Cylindrical Human Glial Cells (1.5)
10.1007/s42242-020-00076-6
  • Hyaluronic Acid [2 wt%]
  • Alginate [1 wt%]
  • Gelatin [7.5 wt%]
3 bar372.3 25 Gauge Cylindrical Human Glial Cells (1.5)
10.1002/term.1682
  • PCL [100 wt%]
650 kPa801.333 250 µm Cylindrical PCL MW = 70,000 - 90,000
10.1002/term.1682
  • Alginate [4 wt%]
9 kPa226.666667 250 µm Conical Primary Nasal Septal Cartilage Chondrocyte (1) Alginate was dispensed in the lines between the lines of the PCL layers
10.1002/term.1682
  • Alginate [6 wt%]
20 kPa226.666667 250 µm Conical Primary Nasal Septal Cartilage Chondrocyte (1) Alginate was dispensed in the lines between the lines of the PCL layers
10.1002/jbm.a.37006
  • Polycarbonate Ureathane [100 wt%]
2206 400 µm Cylindrical An FDM printer was used. 0 µm in-plane pore size
10.1002/jbm.a.37006
  • Polycarbonate Ureathane [100 wt%]
2156 400 µm Cylindrical An FDM printer was used. 100 µm in-plane pore size, printing head temp was set to 220 C for first layer
10.1002/jbm.a.37006
  • Polycarbonate Ureathane [100 wt%]
2156 400 µm Cylindrical An FDM printer was used. 200 µm in-plane pore size, printing head temp was set to 215 C for first layer
10.1002/jbm.a.37006
  • Polycarbonate Ureathane [100 wt%]
2126 400 µm Cylindrical An FDM printer was used. 400 µm in-plane pore size, printing head temp was set to 220 C for first layer
10.1002/jbm.a.37006
  • Polycarbonate Ureathane [100 wt%]
2126 400 µm Cylindrical An FDM printer was used. 600 µm in-plane pore size, printing head temp was set to 220 C for first layer
10.1002/jbm.a.37006
  • Polycarbonate Ureathane [100wt%]
2126 400 µm Cylindrical An FDM printer was used. 800 µm in-plane pore size, printing head temp was set to 220 C for first layer
10.1016/j.bprint.2020.e00076
  • PCL [100 wt%]
6.5 bar1400.5 18 Gauge Cylindrical PCL molecular weight is 50KDa. PCL was engraved and then filled with low-viscosity photocurable inks(GelMA or E-Shell)
10.1016/j.bprint.2020.e00076
  • E-Shell 300 [100 wt%]
0.3 bar2220 27 Gauge Conical
10.1016/j.bprint.2020.e00076
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [7.5 t%]
0.4 bar244 27 Gauge Conical L929 Fibroblasts (1)
10.1002/adfm.201801331
  • Hyaluronic Acid Adamantane [2 wt%]
  • Hyaluronic Acid β-cyclodextrin [2 wt%]
172 kPa250.416667 - 0.5 30 Gauge Cylindrical Used as a sacrificial ink to create a channel.
10.1002/adfm.201801331
  • Hyaluronic Acid β-cyclodextrin [1.5wt%]
  • Hyaluronic Acid Adamantane Norbornene [1.5wt%]
172 kPa250.416667 - 0.5 30 Gauge Cylindrical Supplemented with 4 mM thiolated RGD peptide and 1.2mM thiolated crosslinker. Crosslinking occurred postprinting.
10.1002/adhm.201901794
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [10 wt%]
  • Calcium Peroxide [0.5 wt%]
80 kPa420 23 Gauge Cylindrical NIH 3T3 Fibroblasts (5) Construct crosslinked with Irgacure 2959 (0.5 wt%, 4mW/cm2, 40 s) post print
10.1016/j.actbio.2014.02.041
  • PCL [50 wt%]
  • pHMGCL Methacrylated [50 wt%]
500 kPa1404.16667 25 Gauge Cylindrical pHMGCL stands for poly(hydroxymethylglycolide-co-e-caprolactone). 20 C air was blown over the construct to facilitate solidification. PCL has a 79.1 kDA molecular weight.
10.1016/j.actbio.2014.02.041
  • PCL [50 wt%]
  • pHMGCL [50 wt%]
500 kPa1404.16667 25 Gauge Cylindrical pHMGCL stands for poly(hydroxymethylglycolide-co-e-caprolactone). 20 C air was blown over the construct to facilitate solidification. PCL has a 79.1 kDA molecular weight.
10.1016/j.actbio.2014.02.041
  • PCL [100 wt%]
500 kPa1604.1667 25 Gauge Cylindrical PCL has a 79.1 kDA molecular weight.
10.1088/1758-5090/aacdc7
  • Gelatin [8 wt%]
60 kPa213.3333 25 Gauge Conical
10.1088/1758-5090/aacdc7
  • Gelatin [6 wt%]
  • Alginate [3 wt%]
70 kPa213.3333 25 Gauge Conical
10.1088/1758-5090/aacdc7
  • Gelatin [5 wt%]
  • Alginate [6 wt%]
90 kPa213.3333 25 Gauge Conical
10.1088/1758-5090/aacdc7
  • Gelatin [4 wt%]
  • Alginate [7 wt%]
70 kPa213.3333 25 Gauge Conical
10.1088/1758-5090/aacdc7
  • Gelatin [4 wt%]
  • Alginate [8 wt%]
85 kPa213.3333 25 Gauge Conical
10.1088/1758-5090/aacdc7
  • Gelatin [4 wt%]
  • Alginate [9 wt%]
70 kPa213.3333 25 Gauge Conical
10.1016/j.bprint.2019.e00053
  • Alginate [2 wt%]
10 psi - 12.5 psi258 30 Gauge Cylindrical SK-N-BE(2) Human Neuroblastoma Cells (1) Gelatin support gel was used via the FRESH method
10.1016/j.dental.2019.08.114
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [12.5 wt%]
120 kPa - 150kPa2510 - 12 25 Gauge Conical Periodontal Ligament cells (2)
10.1016/j.dental.2019.08.114
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [15 wt%]
250 kPa - 280 kPa258 - 10 25 Gauge Conical
10.1016/j.dental.2019.08.114
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [10 wt%]
160 kPa - 200 kPa255 - 8 27 Gauge Conical
10.1016/j.dental.2019.08.114
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [12.5 wt%]
230 kPa - 250 kPa2510 - 12 27 Gauge Conical
10.1016/j.dental.2019.08.114
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [15 wt%]
420 kPa - 450 kPa258 - 10 27 Gauge Conical
10.1021/acsbiomaterials.9b00167
  • Alginate dialdehyde [6 wt%]
  • Gelatin [2 wt%]
0.47 bar2625 27 Gauge Conical Printed into a 100mM CaCl2 bath coated with PEI.
10.1021/acsbiomaterials.9b00167
  • Alginate dialdehyde [3 wt%]
  • Gelatin [2 wt%]
0.12 bar2625 27 Gauge Conical RSC96 Rat Schwann Cells (1) Printed into a 100mM CaCl2 bath coated with PEI.
10.1021/acsbiomaterials.9b00167
  • Alginate dialdehyde [2 wt%]
  • Gelatin [2 wt%]
0.1 bar2625 27 Gauge Conical RSC96 Rat Schwann Cells (1) Printed into a 100mM CaCl2 bath coated with PEI.
10.1021/acsbiomaterials.9b00167
  • Alginate dialdehyde [2 wt%]
  • Gelatin [3 wt%]
0.3 bar2625 27 Gauge Conical RSC96 Rat Schwann Cells (1) Printed into a 100mM CaCl2 bath coated with PEI.
10.1021/acsbiomaterials.9b00167
  • Alginate dialdehyde [2 wt%]
  • Gelatin [6 wt%]
2.15 bar2625 27 Gauge Conical Printed into a 100mM CaCl2 bath coated with PEI.
10.1021/acsbiomaterials.9b00167
  • Alginate dialdehyde [3.75 wt%]
  • Gelatin [3.75 wt%]
0.75 bar2625 27 Gauge Conical Printed into a 100mM CaCl2 bath coated with PEI.
10.1088/1758-5090/aa90d7
  • Alginate [3.5 wt%]
1 bar2525 21 Gauge Conical Primary Human Articular Chondrocytes (3) 0.2M CaCl2 was sprayed over the scaffold
10.1088/1758-5090/aa90d7
  • Alginate [3.5 wt%]
  • PLA Fibers [1]
1 bar2525 21 Gauge Conical Primary Human Articular Chondrocytes (3) 0.2M CaCl2 was sprayed over the scaffold
10.1088/1758-5090/aa90d7
  • Alginate [2.5 wt%]
  • PLA Fibers [2 wt%]
1 bar2525 21 Gauge Conical Primary Human Articular Chondrocytes (3) 0.2M CaCl2 was sprayed over the scaffold
10.1038/s41598-017-04691-9
  • Gelatin [7 wt%]
  • Alginate [3 wt%]
200 kPa255 25 Gauge Cylindrical MDA-MB-231 Human Breast Cancer Cells (1) Scaffolds were rinsed with 100mM CaCl2 solution.
10.1089/ten.tea.2019.0237
  • PCL [90 wt%]
  • Hydroxyapatite [10 wt%]
1.5 bar1108 700 µm Cylindrical PCL Mw = 140,00 Da
10.1089/ten.tea.2019.0237
  • PCL [80 wt%]
  • Hydroxyapatite [20 wt%]
2.5 bar1209 700 µm Cylindrical PCL Mw = 140,00 Da
10.1089/ten.tea.2019.0237
  • PCL [70 wt%]
  • Hydroxyapatite [30 wt%]
3.5 bar1309 700 µm Cylindrical PCL Mw = 140,00 Da
10.1016/j.matlet.2020.127382
  • Alginate [7 wt%]
  • Gelatin [4 wt%]
110 kPa - 130 kPa253 22 Gauge Conical 420mM CaCl2 was used to crosslink the constructs.
10.1016/j.matlet.2020.127382
  • Alginate [7 wt%]
  • Gelatin [4 wt%]
138 kPa - 207 kPa253 22 Gauge Conical 420mM CaCl2 was used to crosslink the constructs.
10.2217/3dp-2018-0017
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [15 wt%]
23 psi202 23 Gauge Cylindrical Primary Rat Cardiac Myocytes (1) Construct crosslinked with LAP (0.5 wt%, 7mW/cm2, 300s) post print
10.1016/j.msec.2019.110578
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [15 wt%]
2 bar1510 27 Gauge Conical Primary Sheep Chondrocytes (10) GelMA was printed between PCL layers.
10.1016/j.msec.2019.110578
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [20 wt%]
2 bar2010 27 Gauge Conical Primary Sheep Chondrocytes (10) GelMA was printed between PCL layers.
10.1089/3dp.2018.0175
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [5 wt%]
3 psi2512 23 Gauge Cylindrical HEK293 Kidney Cells (5) An agarose support slurry was used
https://ojs.cnr.ncsu.edu/index.php/BioRes/article/view/BioRes_14_4_9244_Feng_3D_Bioprinting_Molding_Technology_Tissue/7198
  • Gelatin [5 wt%]
  • Nanocellulose [10]
80 kPa2020 260 µm Conical
10.3390/pharmaceutics12060550
  • Alginate [6 wt%]
10 kPa376 20 Gauge Conical Alginate was crosslinked partially before printing.
10.3390/pharmaceutics12060550
  • Chitosan [1.2 wt%]
  • Genipin [1 wt%]
  • PEG [1.2 wt%]
25 kPa374 22 Gauge Conical Human Dermal Fibroblasts/ Primary Human Epidermal Keratinocytes Mix (1)
10.1016/j.jmbbm.2018.01.034
  • Alginate [3 wt%]
0.2 bar206 200 µm Conical Alginate was dispensed into 50mM CaCl2 solution
10.3390/app10030768
  • Alginate [3 wt%]
  • Gelatin [8 wt%]
1.8 bar3710 400 µm Conical Several print conditions were tested for optimization
10.1021/acsami.6b11669
  • Collagen [5 wt%]
110 kPa - 300 kPa1010 310 µm Cylindrical MC63s Osteoblast-like Cells (2) Genipin was used to crosslink the collagen post printing.
10.1021/acsami.6b11669
  • Collagen [5 wt%]
110 kPa - 300 kPa1010 310 µm Cylindrical Human Adipose-derived Stem Cells (2) Genipin was used to crosslink the collagen post printing.
10.1021/acsbiomaterials.8b00903
  • Alginate [2 wt%]
  • Agarose [3 wt%]
65 psi - 75 psi37 30 Gauge Cylindrical Primary Bovine Chondrocytes (20)
10.1016/j.msec.2019.110205
  • PVA [100 wt%]
18070 400 µm Cylindrical PVU was used as a sacrificial mold.
10.1016/j.msec.2019.110205
  • Alginate [20 mg/mL]
  • Agarose [18 mg/mL]
  • Platelet rich plasma (PRP) [20% v/v]
0.3 bar3770 1600 µm Cylindrical Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (4)
10.1016/j.msec.2019.110205
  • Alginate [20 mg/mL]
  • Agarose [18 mg/mL]
  • Platelet rich plasma (PRP) [20% v/v]
0.3 bar3770 1600 µm Cylindrical H9C2 Myoblasts (4)
10.1016/j.bprint.2019.e00045
  • Alginate [2 wt%]
30 kPa18 200 µm Conical Primary Rat Schwann Cells (0.2) Alginate was printed into a 50 mM CaCl2 bath for crosslinking
10.1016/j.bprint.2019.e00045
  • Alginate RGD/YIGSR [2 wt%]
30 kPa18 200 µm Conical Primary Rat Schwann Cells (0.2) Alginate was printed into a 50 mM CaCl2 bath for crosslinking
10.1016/j.bprint.2019.e00045
  • Alginate [2 wt%]
20 kPa6 - 12 200 µm Conical Primary Rat Schwann Cells (0.2) Alginate was printed into a 50 mM CaCl2 bath for crosslinking
10.1016/j.bprint.2019.e00045
  • Alginate RGD/YIGSR [2 wt%]
20 kPa6 - 12 200 µm Conical Primary Rat Schwann Cells (0.2) Alginate was printed into a 50 mM CaCl2 bath for crosslinking
10.1021/acsami.7b04216
  • Alginate [3 wt%]
0.3 bar25 25 Gauge Conical Constructs were submerged in A 40mg/ml CaCl2 bath.
10.1021/acsami.7b04216
  • Methylcellulose [1 wt%]
0.3 bar25 25 Gauge Conical Constructs were submerged in A 40mg/ml CaCl2 bath.
10.1021/acsami.7b04216
  • Alginate [3 wt%]
  • Methylcellulose [1 wt%]
0.8 bar25 25 Gauge Conical Constructs were submerged in A 40mg/ml CaCl2 bath.
10.1021/acsami.7b04216
  • Methylcellulose [3 wt%]
2 bar25 25 Gauge Conical Constructs were submerged in A 40mg/ml CaCl2 bath.
10.1021/acsami.7b04216
  • Alginate [3 wt%]
  • Methylcellulose [3 wt%]
2 bar25 25 Gauge Conical Constructs were submerged in A 40mg/ml CaCl2 bath.
10.1021/acsami.7b04216
  • Methylcellulose [9 wt%]
4 bar25 25 Gauge Conical Constructs were submerged in A 40mg/ml CaCl2 bath.
10.1021/acsami.7b04216
  • Alginate [3 wt%]
  • Methylcellulose [9 wt%]
4 bar25 25 Gauge Conical Constructs were submerged in A 40mg/ml CaCl2 bath. Furthermore, a trisodium citrate solution with L929 Fibroblasts were printed between each layer.
10.1002/adhm.201801631
  • Alginate [3 wt%]
  • Methylcellulose [9 wt%]
40 kPa - 50 kPa2510 840 µm Cylindrical Pancreatic Inslets were encapsulated into the scaffold. The constructs were also crosslinked with 70mM SrCl2 for 10 minutes.
10.1021/acsami.9b09782
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [5 wt%]
254 - 6 210 µm Cylindrical NIH 3T3 Fibroblasts (1) Construct crosslinked with Irgacure 2959 (0.5 wt%, 8mW/cm2, 40s) post print
10.1021/acsami.9b09782
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [5 wt%]
  • Silk Fibroin [1 wt%]
254 - 6 210 µm Cylindrical NIH 3T3 Fibroblasts (1) Construct crosslinked with Irgacure 2959 (0.5 wt%, 8mW/cm2, 40s) post print
10.1016/j.jmbbn.2019.06.014
  • Alginate [2 wt%]
  • Kappa Carrageenan [1.5 wt%]
50 kPa252 510 µm Cylindrical Primary Rabbit Adipose-Dervied Mesenchymal Stem Cells (5) CaSO4 was used at 1 wt% to initially crosslink the hydrogels
10.1016/j.jmbbn.2019.06.014
  • Alginate [2 wt%]
30 kPa254 510 µm Cylindrical Primary Rabbit Adipose-Dervied Mesenchymal Stem Cells (5) CaSO4 was used at 1 wt% to initially crosslink the hydrogels
10.1021/acs.biomac.8b00696
  • Alginate Norbornene [2 wt%]
  • PEG dithiol 1500 [10 mol %]
30 kPa2510 25 Gauge Cylindrical L929 Fibroblasts (3) Bioink conjugated with Thiol-RGD
10.1021/acs.biomac.8b00696
  • Alginate Norbornene [2 wt%]
  • PEG 4arm 5000 [10 mol %]
30 kPa255 - 10 25 Gauge Cylindrical ATDC5 Chondrocytes (3) Bioink conjugated with Thiol-RGD
10.1038/s41598-018-26407-3
  • Alginate [8 wt%]
  • Gelatin [20 wt%]
200 kPa106.5 340 µm Conical Primary Mouse Epidermal Stem Cells (1) PBS was used as a solvent with an ionic strength of .082 M. Construct crosslinked in 10% CaCl2
10.1038/s41598-019-55034-9
  • Alginate [3.25 wt%]
  • Gelatin [4 wt%]
45 kPa25 22 Gauge Cylindrical EGFR T790M Non Small Cell Lung Carcinoma Patient Derived Xenograft (10) 100mM CaCl2 was used to crosslink the scaffold post-processing.
10.1038/s41598-019-55034-9
  • Alginate [3.25 wt%]
  • Gelatin [4 wt%]
45 kPa25 22 Gauge Cylindrical AA0022 Lung Cancer Associated Fibroblasts (10) 100mM CaCl2 was used to crosslink the scaffold post-processing.
10.1038/s41598-019-55034-9
  • Alginate [3.5 wt%]
  • Gelatin [4 wt%]
70 kPa25 22 Gauge Cylindrical EGFR T790M Non Small Cell Lung Carcinoma Patient Derived Xenograft (10) 100mM CaCl2 was used to crosslink the scaffold post-processing.
10.1038/s41598-019-55034-9
  • Alginate [3.5 wt%]
  • Gelatin [4 wt%]
70 kPa25 22 Gauge Cylindrical AA0022 Lung Cancer Associated Fibroblasts (10) 100mM CaCl2 was used to crosslink the scaffold post-processing.
10.1039/c9tb00669a
  • Alginate RGD [1 wt%]
  • Hyaluronic Acid [0.5 wt%]
  • Fibrinogen [10 mg/mL]
10 kPa234 - 9 200 µm Cylindrical Primary Rat Schwann Cells (1) Crosslinked with Calcium chloride (100 mM) and Thrombin (25 U/mL)
10.1039/c9tb00669a
  • Alginate RGD [1 wt%]
  • Hyaluronic Acid [0.5 wt%]
  • Fibrinogen [40 mg/mL]
30 kPa234 - 9 200 µm Cylindrical Primary Rat Schwann Cells (1) Crosslinked with Calcium chloride (100 mM) and Thrombin (25 U/mL)
10.1155/2020/3863428
  • Gelatin [20 wt%]
  • Alginate [1.25 wt%]
  • Cellulose Nanofiber [0.25 wt%]
253 22 Gauge Cylindrical Primary Rabbit Fibrochondrocytes (5) Samples crosslinked with 0.1% w/v CaCl2 for 1 min
10.1088/1758-5090/8/2/025020
  • PCL [100 wt%]
400 kPa652.5 300 µm Cylindrical PCL Average MW of 10000 g mol−1
10.1088/1758-5090/8/2/025020
  • PCL [100 wt%]
800 kPa901.5 300 µm Cylindrical PCL Average MW of 45000 g mol−1
10.1088/1758-5090/8/2/025020
  • PCL [100 wt%]
800 kPa1101 300 µm Cylindrical PCL Average MW of 80000 g mol−1
10.1021/acs.biomaterials.8b00804
  • Chitosan [4 wt%]
0.4 bar - 0.7 bar2010 - 20 580 µm Cylindrical Each layer was solidifed through the manually pipetting coagulant sollution 12wt% NaOH in 7/3 water/ethanol mixture.
10.1021/acs.biomaterials.8b00804
  • Chitosan [4 wt%]
  • Silk Particle [2 wt%]
0.4 bar - 0.7 bar2010 - 20 580 µm Cylindrical Each layer was solidifed through the manually pipetting coagulant sollution 12wt% NaOH in 7/3 water/ethanol mixture.
10.1021/acs.biomaterials.8b00804
  • Chitosan [4 wt%]
  • Silk Particle [4 wt%]
0.4 bar - 0.7 bar2010 - 20 580 µm Cylindrical Each layer was solidifed through the manually pipetting coagulant sollution 12wt% NaOH in 7/3 water/ethanol mixture.
10.1021/acs.biomaterials.8b00804
  • Chitosan [4 wt%]
  • Silk Particle [12 wt%]
0.4 bar - 0.7 bar2010 - 20 580 µm Cylindrical Each layer was solidifed through the manually pipetting coagulant sollution 12wt% NaOH in 7/3 water/ethanol mixture.
10.1002/slct.201902878
  • Gelatin [20 wt%]
  • Alginate [2 wt%]
  • B-Tricalcium Phosphate [10 wt%]
4315 - 20 19 Gauge Cylindrical Immersed in 1M CaCl2 for an hour after printing.
10.1002/slct.201902878
  • Gelatin [20 wt%]
  • Alginate [2 wt%]
  • B-Tricalcium Phosphate [13 wt%]
4315 - 20 19 Gauge Cylindrical Immersed in 1M CaCl2 for an hour after printing.
10.1002/slct.201902878
  • Gelatin [20 wt%]
  • Alginate [2 wt%]
  • B-Tricalcium Phosphate [15 wt%]
4315 - 20 19 Gauge Cylindrical Immersed in 1M CaCl2 for an hour after printing.
10.1016/j.actbio.2016.12.008
  • Fibrinogen [30 mg/mL]
  • Gelatin [35 mg/mL]
  • Hyaluronic Acid [3 mg/mL]
60 kPa181.67 - 8.34 300 µm Conical Primary Rabbit Bladder Urothelial Cells (10) The cell-laden hydrogel was printed into a urethra structure. Final crosslinking done with thrombin
10.1016/j.actbio.2016.12.008
  • PLCL [100 wt%]
550 kPa1601.67 - 8.34 200 µm Cylindrical LA:CL = 70:30
10.1016/j.actbio.2016.12.008
  • PLCL [50 wt%]
  • PCL [50 wt%]
760 kPa1501.67 - 8.34 200 µm Cylindrical LA:CL = 70:30. PCL Mw = 43000-50,000.
10.1016/j.actbio.2016.12.008
  • PCL [100 wt%]
760 kPa981.67 - 8.34 200 µm Cylindrical PCL Mw = 43000-50,000.
10.1016/j.actbio.2016.12.008
  • Fibrinogen [30 mg/mL]
  • Gelatin [35 mg/mL]
  • Hyaluronic Acid [3 mg/mL]
60 kPa181.67 - 8.34 300 µm Conical Primary Rabbit Smooth Muscle Cells (10) The cell-laden hydrogel was printed into a urethra structure. Final crosslinking done with thrombin
10.1002/jbm.b.34602
  • Chitosan [4.5 wt%]
25 kPa3710 22 Gauge Cylindrical Human Fibroblasts (0.2)
10.1002/jbm.b.34602
  • Poly(gamma glutamic acid) [2 wt%]
5 kPa - 10 kPa3710 25 Gauge Cylindrical
10.1002/jbm.b.34602
  • Chitosan [6 wt%]
40 kPa3710 22 Gauge Cylindrical Human Fibroblasts (0.2)
10.1089/ten.tec.2015.0307
  • PCL [100 wt%]
800 kPa751 300 µm Cylindrical PCL Mw = 48,000 -90,000.
10.1089/ten.tec.2015.0307
  • Alginate [2.5 wt%]
10 kPa1025 200 µm Conical Primary Embryonic Chick Chondrocytes (5.68) Each alginate layer was partiallly crosslinked with aerosolized CaCl2 (170mM) during print
10.3390/cells8080830
  • Alginate [6 wt%]
  • Gelatin [4 wt%]
55 kPa2510 410 µm Conical SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells (0.05) Alginate crosslinked in 2% CaCl2 bath post-print
10.3390/cells8080830
  • Alginate [4 wt%]
  • Gelatin [4 wt%]
45 kPa2510 410 µm Conical SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells (0.05) Alginate crosslinked in 2% CaCl2 bath post-print
10.3390/cells8080830
  • Alginate [6 wt%]
  • Gelatin [4 wt%]
55 kPa2510 410 µm Conical iPSCs (2) Alginate crosslinked in 2% CaCl2 bath post-print
10.3390/cells8080830
  • Alginate [6 wt%]
  • Gelatin [4 wt%]
55 kPa2510 410 µm Conical Neural Stem Cells iPSC Differentiated (2) Alginate crosslinked in 2% CaCl2 bath post-print
10.1016/j.bprint.2020.e00085
  • Alginate [5 wt%]
24 psi2010 203 µm Conical CaCl2 was co-sprayed during printing to crosslink alginate
10.1016/j.bprint.2020.e00085
  • Alginate [7 wt%]
44 psi2010 203 µm Conical CaCl2 was co-sprayed during printing to crosslink alginate
10.1088/1758-5090-aa8854
  • Alginate [2.8 wt%]
  • Agarose [0.9 wt%]
  • Methylcellulose [3 wt%]
80 kPa - 100 kPa258 - 10 610 µm Conical Basil Plant Cells 1 g of concentrated biomass was mixed into 10 ml of hydrogel paste. Crosslinked with 0.1M CaCl2
10.1016/j.actbio.2019.02.038
  • Alginate Methacrylated [9 wt%]
138 kPa2510 210 µm Cylindrical Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells (2) Several other bioink combinations tested. RGD peptide was added at 50mg/ml.
10.1016/j.actbio.2019.02.038
  • Hyaluronic Acid Methacrylated [15 wt%]
552 kPa2510 210 µm Cylindrical Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells (2) Several other bioink combinations tested. RGD peptide was added at 50mg/ml.
10.1016/j.actbio.2019.02.038
  • Pluronic F127 [40 wt%]
414 kPa254 80 µm Cylindrical
10.1016/j.actbio.2019.02.038
  • Pluronic F127 [40 wt%]
414 kPa254 300 µm Cylindrical
10.1016/j.actbio.2019.02.038
  • Pluronic F127 [40 wt%]
414 kPa254 400 µm Cylindrical
10.1088/1758-5090/aaf44a
  • Alginate [2.5 wt%]
  • Hydroxyapatite [2 wt%]
0.3 bar3714 - 17 250 µm Conical Primary Embryonic Chick Chondrocytes (1.57) The ink was printed into a crosslinking medium containing 100 mM CaCl2, 0.1% (w/v) PEI. HA was stabilized in bioink using sodium citrate.
10.1088/1758-5090/aaf44a
  • Alginate [2.5 wt%]
  • Hydroxyapatite [1 wt%]
0.3 bar3715 - 17 250 µm Conical Primary Embryonic Chick Chondrocytes (1.57) The ink was printed into a crosslinking medium containing 100 mM CaCl2, 0.1% (w/v) PEI. HA was stabilized in bioink using sodium citrate.
10.1088/1758-5090/aacd30
  • Alginate [1 wt%]
  • Hyaluronic Acid [0.5 wt%]
  • Fibrinogen [40 mg/mL]
30 kPa229 200 µm Cylindrical Primary Rat Schwann Cells (1) Printed in a bath of 20 mM CaCl2 + 10 U/ml thrombin
http://ijb.whioce.com/index.php/int-j-bioprinting/article/view/02009
  • Chitosan [2.5 wt%]
  • Gelatin [5 wt%]
2.4 bar2716.67 210 µm Cylindrical A polyelectrolyte complex was formed between the gelatin and chitosan
10.1021/acs.biomac.9b01204
  • Gelatin Norbonene [10 wt%]
22.515 18 Gauge Conical NIH 3T3 Fibroblasts (2) The hydrogel was crosslinked with LAP (.1wt%, 5mW/cm2) concurrent with printing.
10.1021/acs.biomac.9b01204
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [10 wt%]
22.515 18 Gauge Conical NIH 3T3 Fibroblasts (2) The hydrogel was crosslinked with LAP (.1wt%, 5mW/cm2) concurrent with printing.
10.1016/j.biomaterials.2013.09.078
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [10 wt%]
3 bar27.57.5 30 Gauge Cylindrical VA-086 used as photo-initiator with an optimized UV dose of 1800 mJ/cm2
10.1016/j.biomaterials.2013.09.078
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [10 wt%]
3 bar24.56.67 30 Gauge Cylindrical HEPG2 Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells (1.5) VA-086 used as photo-initiator with an optimized UV dose of 1800 mJ/cm2
10.1016/j.biomaterials.2013.09.078
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [10 wt%]
0.5 bar - 1 bar24.510 27 Gauge Cylindrical HEPG2 Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells (1.5) VA-086 used as photo-initiator with an optimized UV dose of 1800 mJ/cm2
10.1016/j.biomaterials.2013.09.078
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [15 wt%]
4 bar28.59.16 27 Gauge Cylindrical VA-086 used as photo-initiator with an optimized UV dose of 1800 mJ/cm2
10.1016/j.biomaterials.2013.09.078
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [20 wt%]
4 bar309.16 27 Gauge Cylindrical VA-086 used as photo-initiator with an optimized UV dose of 1800 mJ/cm2
10.1016/j.actbio.2014.09.023
  • Gelatin [15 wt%]
  • Silk Fibroin [8 wt%]
200 kPa - 250 kPa281 250 µm Cylindrical Primary Human Nasal Inferior Turbinate Tissue-derived (2.5) Post-printing crosslinking occurred through either the use of tyrosinase addition or sonication.
10.1007/s10544-014-9915-8
  • Gelatin [5 wt%]
50 kPa245 30 Gauge Cylindrical Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (5) Gelatin crosslinked with microbial transglutaminase at 3U/mL
10.1007/s10544-014-9915-8
  • Gelatin [5 wt%]
50 kPa245 30 Gauge Cylindrical HEK293 Kidney Cells (5) Gelatin crosslinked with microbial transglutaminase at 3U/mL
10.1088/0960-1317/22/8/085014
  • Alginate [4 wt%]
254.166666667 200 µm Cylindrical MG63 Human Osteoblasts (1) Crosslinked with CaCl2 (100 mM)and naCl (145 mM)
10.1088/0960-1317/22/8/085014
  • Alginate [4 wt%]
254.166666667 200 µm Cylindrical Primary Human Nasal Septum Cartilage Chondrocytes (1) Crosslinked with CaCl2 (100 mM)and naCl (145 mM)
10.1088/0960-1317/22/8/085014
  • PCL [100 wt%]
400 kPa801.666666667 200 µm Cylindrical PCL MW of 70,000 - 90,000.
10.1016/j.procir.2015.11.001
  • Pluronic F127 [25 wt%]
1.2 bar37 200 µm Conical Balb 3T3 Mouse Embryonic Fibroblasts (1)
10.1016/j.matdes.2018.09.040
  • Gellan Gum [1.5 wt%]
  • PEGDA [10 wt%]
3710 25 Gauge Cylindrical MC3T3-E1 Mouse Osteoblasts (2) Construct crosslinked with I2959 (0.1 wt%, 50 mW/cm2, 180s) post print
10.1016/j.matdes.2018.09.040
  • Gellan Gum [1.5 wt%]
  • PEGDA [10 wt%]
3710 25 Gauge Cylindrical Murine Bone Marrow Stromal Cells (2) Construct crosslinked with I2959 (0.1 wt%, 50 mW/cm2, 180s) post print
10.1088/1758-5090/ab94d0
  • Alginate [1 wt%]
  • Cellulose Nanofibrillated [2 wt%]
2 psi - 10 psi251 500 µm Cylindrical PC-12 Neuronal Cells (1) Cured post print by exposure to 50 mM CaCl2 for 2 mins
10.1088/1758-5090/ab94d0
  • Alginate [1 wt%]
  • Cellulose Nanofibrillated [2 wt%]
2 psi - 10 psi251 500 µm Cylindrical NIH 3T3 Fibroblasts (1) Cured post print by exposure to 50 mM CaCl2 for 2 mins
10.1088/1758-5090/ab94d0
  • Alginate [0.25 wt%]
  • Cellulose Nanofibrillated [2 wt%]
2 psi - 10 psi251 500 µm Cylindrical C57BL/6 Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells (1) Cured post print by exposure to 50 mM CaCl2 for 2 mins
10.3390/gels5030034
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [10 wt%]
50 kPa - 57 kPa251.25 250 µm Conical The GelMA post-printing was crosslinked with only UV, or mTGase after UV crosslinking.
10.1088/1758-5090/ab0b7c
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [5 wt%]
  • Hydroxyapatite [.5 wt%]
  • Gelatin [5 wt%]
125 kPa235 200 µm Conical Primary Human Adipose-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (5) Crosslinked with LAP.
10.1016/j.actbio.2014.09.033
  • Hyaluronic Acid pNIPAAM [15 wt%]
  • Hyaluronic Acid Methacrylated [2 wt%]
1.5 bar238.33 300 µm Cylindrical Primary Bovine Chondrocytes (6) Constrcut crosslinked with LAP (0.05 wt%, 6.09 mW/cm2, 10s) post print
10.1016/j.msec.2017.05.003
  • PCL [95 wt%]
  • Nukbone [5 wt%]
0.7 bar - 1 bar900.5 - 0.7 800 µm Cylindrical Nukbone is a commercially available bovine bone filling. PCL MW = 37,000.
10.1016/j.msec.2017.05.003
  • PCL [95 wt%]
  • Hydroxyapatite [5 wt%]
0.7 bar - 1 bar00.5 - 0.7 800 µm Cylindrical PCL MW = 37,000.
10.1016/j.msec.2017.05.003
  • PCL [90 wt%]
  • Nukbone [10 wt%]
0.7 bar - 1 bar900.5 - 0.7 800 µm Cylindrical Nukbone is a commercially available bovine bone filling. PCL MW = 37,000.
10.1016/j.msec.2017.05.003
  • PCL [90 wt%]
  • Hydroxyapatite [10 wt%]
0.7 bar - 1 bar900.5 - 0.7 800 µm Cylindrical PCL MW = 37,000.
10.1016/j.msec.2017.05.003
  • PCL [80 wt%]
  • Nukbone [20 wt%]
0.7 bar - 1 bar900.5 - 0.7 800 µm Cylindrical Nukbone is a commercially available bovine bone filling. PCL MW = 37,000.
10.1016/j.msec.2017.05.003
  • PCL [80 wt%]
  • Hydroxyapatite [20 wt%]
0.7 bar - 1 bar900.5 - 0.7 800 µm Cylindrical
10.1108/rpj.03-2016-0035
  • PCL [100 wt%]
500 kPa1800.4 400 µm Cylindrical PCL Mol Number = 80,000
10.1108/rpj.03-2016-0035
  • PCL [100 wt%]
500 kPa1800.4 700 µm Cylindrical PCL Mol Number = 80,000
10.1089/ten.tec.2016.0368
  • PCL [100 wt%]
80 kPa851 300 µm Cylindrical PCL Mol Wt ~ 45,000.
10.1089/ten.tec.2016.0368
  • Alginate [2.5 wt%]
30 kPa1025 200 µm Conical ATDC5 Chondrocytes (8) Alginate crosslinked with a nebulizer containing 170 mM CaCl2
10.1016/j.jmbbm.2016.03.024
  • PCL [100 wt%]
350 kPa100 600 µm Cylindrical PCL Mol Wt = 43,000 - 50,000
10.1089/3dp.2014.0025
  • PCL [100 wt%]
350 kPa80 - 1001.2 300 µm Cylindrical PCL Mol Wt = 43,000 - 50,000
10.1089/3dp.2014.0025
  • PCL [100 wt%]
350 kPa80 - 901.2 400 µm Cylindrical PCL Mol Wt = 43,000 - 50,000
10.1115/1.4031174
  • PCL [100 wt%]
500 kPa1201.4 300 µm Cylindrical PCL Mol Wt - 43,500 - 50,000 kDa. Alginate microspheres were delivered into the PCL scaffold
10.1002/adfm.201908349
  • Gelatin [7.5 wt%]
0.7 bar - 1.1 bar26 - 273 - 6 25 Gauge Cylindrical Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (6) 7.5wt% Gelatin was used as a templating bioink. While the other bioinks were used as matrix bioinks in void-free 3D printing. The matrix bioink/templating bioink structure was irradiated using ultraviolet light, then incubated at 37°C to liquify the templating bioink.
10.1002/adfm.201908349
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [7.5 wt%]
0.7 bar - 1.1 bar22 - 233 - 6 25 Gauge Cylindrical 7.5wt% Gelatin was used as a templating bioink. While the other bioinks were used as matrix bioinks in void-free 3D printing. The matrix bioink/templating bioink structure was irradiated using ultraviolet light, then incubated at 37°C to liquify the templating bioink.
10.1002/adfm.201908349
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [5 wt%]
0.7 bar - 1.1 bar19 - 203 - 6 25 Gauge Cylindrical 7.5wt% Gelatin was used as a templating bioink. While the other bioinks were used as matrix bioinks in void-free 3D printing. The matrix bioink/templating bioink structure was irradiated using ultraviolet light, then incubated at 37°C to liquify the templating bioink.
10.1002/adfm.201908349
  • Hyaluronic Acid Methacrylated [5 wt%]
0.7 bar - 1.1 bar243 - 6 25 Gauge Cylindrical 7.5wt% Gelatin was used as a templating bioink. While the other bioinks were used as matrix bioinks in void-free 3D printing. The matrix bioink/templating bioink structure was irradiated using ultraviolet light, then incubated at 37°C to liquify the templating bioink.
10.1002/adfm.201908349
  • Hyaluronic Acid Norbornene [5 wt%]
0.7 bar - 1.1 bar243 - 6 25 Gauge Cylindrical 7.5wt% Gelatin was used as a templating bioink. While the other bioinks were used as matrix bioinks in void-free 3D printing. The matrix bioink/templating bioink structure was irradiated using ultraviolet light, then incubated at 37°C to liquify the templating bioink.
10.1016/j.compscitech.2020.108069
  • PCL [100 wt%]
6 bar1300.6 400 µm Cylindrical PCL MW = 50,000.
10.1016/j.compscitech.2020.108069
  • PCL [90 wt%]
  • Hydroxyapatite [10 wt%]
6.2 bar1300.5 400 µm Cylindrical PCL MW = 50,000
10.1016/j.compscitech.2020.108069
  • PCL [90 wt%]
  • Hydroxyapatite [7.54 wt%]
  • Strontium [2.46 wt%]
6.2 bar1300.6 400 µm Cylindrical PCL MW = 50,000. Strontium was added to the HA powder
10.1016/j.compscitech.2020.108069
  • PCL [80 wt%]
  • Hydroxyapatite [20 wt%]
6.4 bar1400.5 400 µm Cylindrical PCL MW = 50,000
10.1016/j.compscitech.2020.108069
  • PCL [80 wt%]
  • Hydroxyapatite [17.54 wt%]
  • Strontium [2.46 wt%]
6.4 bar1400.6 400 µm Cylindrical PCL MW = 50,000. Strontium was added to the HA powder
10.1016/j.matlet.2019.126893
  • Alginate [2.5 wt%]
  • PLA Fibers [2 wt%]
1 bar2525 21 Gauge Cylindrical After printing .2M CaCl2 was sprayed onto the hydrogel
10.1016/j.matlet.2019.126893
  • Alginate [4 wt%]
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [6 wt%]
  • B-Tricalcium Phosphate [0.5 wt%]
N/A363.9 25 Gauge Cylindrical 0.19M CaCl2 was used as sheath during coaxial printing.
10.1016/j.matlet.2019.126893
  • PCL [100 wt%]
6 bar1151 23 Gauge Cylindrical PCL MW = 80,000
10.1088/2057-1976/ab54a7
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [10 wt%]
  • Hyaluronic Acid Methacrylated [2 wt%]
4 bar258 200 µm Cylindrical Bone Marrow-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (1)
10.1088/2057-1976/ab54a7
  • PCL [100 wt%]
4.8 bar1651.4 200 µm Cylindrical PCL MW = 45,000
10.1088/2057-1976/ab54a7
  • PCL [100 wt%]
4.8 bar1553.5 300 µm Cylindrical PCL MW = 45,000
10.1088/2057-1976/ab54a7
  • Pluronic F127
4.2 bar306 200 µm Cylindrical
10.1088/2057-1976/ab54a7
  • PCL [100 wt%]
4.8 bar15513 400 µm Cylindrical PCL MW = 45,000
10.1102/jbm.b.34542
  • PCL [100 wt%]
500 kPa1300.7 400 µm Cylindrical PCL MN = 80,000
10.1102/jbm.b.34542
  • PCL [80 wt%]
  • B-Tricalcium Phosphate [20 wt%]
500 kPa1600.4 400 µm Cylindrical PCL MN = 80,000
10.3390/mi11010031
  • PCL [100 wt%]
700 kPa804 - 6 500 µm Cylindrical PCL MW = 55,000
10.2217/3dp-2016-0011
  • PCL [100 wt%]
5 bar1105 22 Gauge Cylindrical Average MN 45,000
10.3892/mmr.2018.9076
  • PCL [10 wt%]
  • PLGA [90 wt%]
650 kPa1351.667 27 Gauge Cylindrical PCL MW = 50,000; PLGA MW = 50,000 - 75,000 with a LA:GA of 50:50
10.3892/mmr.2018.9076
  • PCL [50 wt%]
  • PLGA [50 wt%]
650 kPa1351.667 27 Gauge Cylindrical PCL MW = 50,000; PLGA MW = 50,000 - 75,000 with a LA:GA of 50:50
10.3892/mmr.2018.9076
  • PCL [90 wt%]
  • PLGA [10 wt%]
650 kPa1351.667 27 Gauge Cylindrical PCL MW = 50,000; PLGA MW = 50,000 - 75,000 with a LA:GA of 50:50
10.3390/ma11061006
  • PCL [100 wt%]
6 bar1302.5 PCL consists of blend of PCL10 (10kDa) and PCL80 (80kDa) at a ratio of 40:60
10.3390/ma11061006
  • PVA [6 wt%]
3.5 bar252 1ml of Acrylic acid was added to the solution and subsequently 100 mg N,N Methylenebisacrylamide was added.
10.1016/j.acthis.2018.02.010
  • PCL [100 wt%]
6 bar1302.3 700 µm Cylindrical PCL MN = 50,000
10.1016/j.actbio.2017.09.031
  • PCL [66.6666 wt%]
  • Calcium-Polyphosphate Microparticles [33.3333 wt%]
7.8 bar1003 400 µm Cylindrical PCL MW = 50,000
10.1016/j.actbio.2017.09.031
  • PCL [100 wt%]
8 bar1001 400 µm Cylindrical PCL MW = 50,000
10.1002/jbm.b.33994
  • PCL [90 wt%]
  • Hydroxyapatite [10 wt%]
3 bar - 3.5 bar1201.8 - 2.2 22 Gauge Cylindrical PCL MW = 65,000
10.1016/j.bprint.2017.08.001
  • PCL [100 wt%]
6 bar1101.4 24 Gauge Cylindrical 50-43 kDA PCL
10.3390/ma10070831
  • PCL [100 wt%]
575 kPa - 625 kPa1001.333333333 200 µm Cylindrical PCL MW = 50kDa. The paper reports that the PCL was dispensed thorugh a steel nozzle at temperature > 100 °C.
10.1039/c7ra04372d
  • Hyaluronic Acid Methacrylated [1 wt%]
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [4 wt%]
  • Hyaluronic Acid [3 wt%]
22 Gauge Cylindrical Primary Porcine Stromal Vascular Fraction Cells (4) Construct crosslinked for 40s after print
10.1039/c7ra04372d
  • PCL [90 wt%]
  • Hydroxyaptatite [10 wt%]
3 bar - 3.5 bar1201.8 - 2.2 22 Gauge Cylindrical PCL MW = 65,000
10.1016/j.bprint.2017.04.003
  • Silicone [100 wt%]
5 bar86.2 200 µm Cylindrical
10.1016/j.bprint.2017.04.003
  • PCL [100 wt%]
5.6 bar804 200 µm Cylindrical PCL MW = 14,000
10.1088/1758-5090/ab02c9
  • Pluronic F127 Thiolated [12 wt%]
  • Hyaluronic Acid Dopamine Conjugated [1 wt%]
  • Gelatin Dopamine Conjugated [2 wt%]
2 psi - 10 psi371 27 Gauge Conical S16Y Schwann Cells (3.2) Crosslinking was done post-processing
10.1088/1758-5090/ab02c9
  • Pluronic F127 Thiolated [12 wt%]
  • Hyaluronic Acid Dopamine Conjugated [1 wt%]
  • Gelatin Methacrylated Dopamine Conjugated [5 wt%]
2 psi - 10 psi371 27 Gauge Conical S16Y Schwann Cells (3.2) Crosslinking was done post-processing
10.1016/j.jmbbm.2017.09.031
  • Hyaluronic acid [2 wt%]
  • Methylcellulose [5 wt%]
160 kPa - 175 kPa253 23 Gauge Cylindrical Mesenchymal Stem cells were encapsulated into the hydrogel, however cell concentration was not stated.
10.1016/j.jmbbm.2017.09.031
  • Hyaluronic acid [2 wt%]
  • Methylcellulose [6 wt%]
160 kPa - 175 kPa253 23 Gauge Cylindrical Mesenchymal Stem cells were encapsulated into the hydrogel, however cell concentration was not stated.
10.1016/j.jmbbm.2017.09.031
  • Hyaluronic acid [2 wt%]
  • Methylcellulose [7 wt%]
160 kPa - 175 kPa253 23 Gauge Cylindrical Mesenchymal Stem cells were encapsulated into the hydrogel, however cell concentration was not stated.
10.1016/j.jmbbm.2017.09.031
  • Hyaluronic acid [2 wt%]
  • Methylcellulose [9 wt%]
160 kPa - 175 kPa253 23 Gauge Cylindrical Mesenchymal Stem cells were encapsulated into the hydrogel, however cell concentration was not stated.
10.1016/j.bprint.2017.09.001
  • Alginate [7 wt%]
  • Gelatin [8 wt%]
100 kPa373 30 Gauge Cylindrical The alginate/gelatin composite was optimized.
10.1088/1758-5090/ab56f9
  • Gelatin [15 wt%]
2.4 bar3564 25 Gauge Cylindrical Crosslinking occurred post processing.
10.1016/j.actbio.2019.01.018
  • Alginate [10 wt%]
20 kPa251 21 Gauge Cylindrical Alginate was used as sacrifical template. Likewise, 100mM CaCl2 was pippetted on the printed filament and allowed to crosslink for 5 minutes.
10.1088/1748-605X/aa7692
  • Chitosan [6 wt%]
2 - 23 260 µm Chitosan was frozen prior to printing and then immersed into a coagulation bath.
10.1088/1748-605X/aa7692
  • Chitosan Raffinose Modified [6 wt%]
2 - 23 260 µm Chitosan was frozen prior to printing and then immersed into a coagulation bath.
10.1088/1748-605X/aa7692
  • PLA [100 wt%]
1802 350 µm Cylindrical
10.1038/s41467-020-16192
  • Hyaluronic Acid Methacrylated [2 wt%]
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [10 wt%]
80 kPa2528 22 Gauge Cylindrical Poly-L-lysine and Heparin were coated on the surface of the 3D printed hydrogel scaffold. Construct crosslinked with I2959 (0.5 wt%, 10 mW/cm2, 180s) post print
10.7150/thno.44270
  • PCL [100 wt%]
80 kPa1307 300 µm Cylindrical PCL Mol Wt = 80,000. PCL was immersed in silk fibroin solution and irradiated with gamma rays.
10.1016/j.biomaterials.2020.119838
  • PCL [100 wt%]
4 bar1801 22 Gauge Cylindrical PCL MW = 80,000
10.1002/apj.2360
  • B-Tricalcium Phosphate [77 wt%]
  • Hydroxyapatite [19.2 wt%]
  • Tripolyphosphate [3.2 wt%]
  • Carboxymethylcellulose [0.04 wt%]
2 bar224
10.1002/apj.2360
  • Gelatin [8 wt%]
  • Elastin [2 wt%]
  • Hyaluronic Acid [0.5 wt%]
2 bar3115
10.1016/j.joen.2019.03.004
  • Gelatin [20 wt%]
  • Alginate [4 wt%]
20 kPa372 400 µm Cylindrical 5% CaCl2 and 1% Glutaraldehyde was used for crosslinking at 10 and 30 minutes respectively.
10.1016/j.jmbbm.2019.02.014
  • Alginate [3 wt%]
0.3 bar2014 200 µm Cylindrical Primary Rat Schwann Cells (0.5) Crosslinking with CaCl2 was per layer
10.1016/j.jmbbm.2019.02.014
  • Alginate [1.5 wt%]
0.1 bar2026 200 µm Cylindrical Primary Rat Schwann Cells (0.5) Crosslinking with CaCl2 was per layer
10.1016/j.jmbbm.2019.02.014
  • Gelatin [50 wt%]
0.8 bar5016 24 Gauge Cylindrical Alginate was impregnated into the gelatin framework. After impregnation the gelatin was removed through an incubation process.
10.1088/1361-6560/aabd1f
  • Gelatin [10 wt%]
0.4 bar7030 Conical 50% of microbubbles by gelatin weight was added to the hydrogel
10.1038/ncomms15261
  • Gelatin [10 wt%]
1.8 bar - 4.5 bar3010 100 µm Cylindrical
10.1016/j.matlet.2018.01.032
  • Gelatin [15 wt%]
0.6 bar3715 250 µm Cylindrical Scaffolds were crosslinked with 12mg/ml EDC and 1.5mg/ml NHS for 4 Hours.
10.1371/journal.pone.0157214
  • Alginate [8 wt%]
  • Gelatin [2 wt%]
2 bar - 3 bar35 - 3710 250 µm Cylindrical Primary Human Adipose Derived Stem Cells (3) Crosslinked with 200mM CaCl2 for 5 minutes.
10.1016/j.jmst.2016.01.007
  • Alginate [40 mg/mL]
  • Gelatin [200 mg/ml]
0.2 bar372 400 µm Cylindrical Scaffolds were first immersed into the CaCl2 solution, and then glutaraldehyde 1wt% for 30 minutes.
10.1002/adhm.201600095
  • Alginate [5 wt%]
  • Chitosan Carboxymethyl [5 wt%]
  • Agarose [1.5 wt%]
1.5 bar - 2 bar15 200 µm Cylindrical Human Neural Stem Cells (5) CaCl2 crosslinking occurred post processing.
10.3390/app8091422
  • Alginate [3 wt%]
0.2 bar18 - 208 200 µm Conical Crosslinked for a sufficient time to allow Ca2+ ions to penetrate and crosslink the whole structure.
10.1002/jbm.a.36333
  • Alginate [200 mg/mL]
  • Silica Gel [200 mg/mL]
0.5 bar378 410 µm Cylindrical Dispensed into a PEI solution - 40 mL of PEI (50% w/v in water) to 100 mL of ethanol.
10.3390/jfb8040048
  • Alginate [2 wt%]
0.1 bar2514 200 µm Conical Printed into CaCl2 and poly(ethyleneimine) solution
10.1021/acsbiomaterials.6b00258
  • Alginate [2 wt%]
0.1 bar257.5 200 µm Conical Primary Chick Chondrocytes (5) Printed into (50mM CaCl2 and .1wt% poly(ethyleneime) solution.
10.1021/acsbiomaterials.6b00258
  • Alginate [2 wt%]
0.1 bar256.5 200 µm Conical Primary Chick Chondrocytes (5) Printed into (100mM CaCl2 and .1wt% poly(ethyleneime) solution.
10.1021/acsbiomaterials.6b00258
  • Alginate [2 wt%]
0.1 bar255.5 200 µm Conical Primary Chick Chondrocytes (5) Printed into (200mM CaCl2 and .1wt% poly(ethyleneime) solution.
10.1089/ten.tec/2017.0346
  • Alginate [2.5 wt%]
  • Carbon Nanotubes [0.625 wt%]
0.1 bar228 - 10 250 µm Conical 25 µg of carbon nanotubes/mg of Alginate was added to the hydrogel. CaCl2 and PEI were used to crosslink the alginate.
10.1089/ten.tec/2017.0346
  • Alginate [2.5 wt%]
0.1 bar228 - 10 250 µm Conical
10.1089/ten.tec/2017.0346
  • Collagen Methacrylated [2.34 wt%]
  • Carbon Nanotubes [0.117 wt%]
1525 - 32 200 µm Conical Human Coronary Artery Endothelial Cells (1) 5 µg carbon nanotubes/mg of methacrylated collagen was added to the hydrogel. The hydrogel was crosslinked with ultraviolet light for 45 seconds
10.1089/ten.tec/2017.0346
  • Collagen Methacrylated [2.34 wt%]
1525 - 32 200 µm Conical Human Coronary Artery Endothelial Cells (1) The hydrogel was crosslinked with ultraviolet light for 45 seconds
10.1021/acs.biomaterials.6b00196
  • Alginate [2.5 wt%]
0.2 bar3715 18 Gauge Cylindrical Human Adipose Stem Cells (1.375) Crosslinked post-print with CaCl2
10.1021/acsbiomaterials.6b00196
  • Alginate [2.5 wt%]
  • PLA Nanofibers [0.5 wt%]
0.2 bar375 18 Gauge Cylindrical Human Adipose Stem Cells (1.375) Crosslinked post-print with CaCl2
10.1089/3dp.2014.0006
  • Alginate [2.5 wt%]
  • Hyaluronic Acid [0.25 wt%]
1.2 bar4 100 µm Primary Rat Schwann Cells (5.2) The hydrogel was printed into a 100mM CaCl2, PEI, and PVA solution for varying lengths of time.
10.1016/j.biomaterials.2014.07.002
  • Alginate [5 wt%]
  • Gelatin [5 wt%]
0.9 bar3026 410 µm Cylindrical Human Osteogenic Sarcoma Cells (0.5) Dispensed into a solution consisting of 0.4% CaCl2 and polyphosphate at a ratio of 2:1.
https://proceedings.cmbes.ca/index.php/proceedings/article/view/770
  • Alginate [3 wt%]
0.1 bar258 200 µm Conical RSC96 Rat Schwann Cells (0.78) Dispensed into a solution consisting of 50mMCaCl2, PEI, and Glycerol.
10.1021/acs.biomac.9b01112
  • PLLA [100 wt%]
5 bar - 8.5 bar2204 - 45 400 µm Cylindrical PLLA MW = 145 kDa. Polymer degradation and MW reduction occurred at high temperatures needed to print.
10.1021/acs.biomac.9b01112
  • PCLA [100 wt%]
7 bar - 8.5 bar2052 - 20 400 µm Cylindrical PCLA MW = 133 kDaPolymer degradation and MW reduction occurred at high temperatures needed to print.
10.1021/acs.biomac.9b01112
  • PLGA [100 wt%]
5 bar - 8.5 bar2005 - 19 400 µm Cylindrical PLGA MW = 142 kDa. Polymer degradation and MW reduction occurred at high temperatures needed to print.
10.1021/acs.biomac.9b01112
  • PDLGA [100 wt%]
7 bar - 8.5 bar2006 - 14 400 µm Cylindrical PDLGA MW = 98 kDa. Polymer degradation and MW reduction occurred at high temperatures needed to print.
10.1016/j.jbiotec.2018.08.019
  • PLA [75 wt%]
  • Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) [25 wt%]
5 bar180 - 2303 600 µm Cylindrical The study examined the impact of material preparation conditions (drying) prior to 3D printing.
10.1021/acsbiomaterials.8b01277
  • Hyaluronic Acid Methacrylated [1 wt%]
  • Hyaluronic Acid [3 wt%]
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [4 wt%]
  • Gelatin [2 wt%]
3 bar - 3.5 bar253 - 3.5 22 Gauge Cylindrical Primary Human Adipose-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (1) Whole construcst exposed to UV light for 45 seconds.
10.1021/acsbiomaterials.8b01277
  • Hyaluronic Acid Methacrylated [1.5 wt%]
  • Hyaluronic Acid [3 wt%]
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [1.5 wt%]
  • Gelatin [3 wt%]
3 bar - 3.5 bar251.8 - 2.2 22 Gauge Cylindrical 21 PT Breast Cancer Cells (5) Whole construcst exposed to UV light for 45 seconds.
10.1371/journal.pone.0216776
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [5 wt%]
  • Gellan Gum [0.5 wt%]
0.8 bar24 - 261.67 27 Gauge Cylindrical Constructs were UV-cured during print at 400mm/min UV scan speed per layer
10.1371/journal.pone.0216776
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [7.5 wt%]
  • Gellan Gum [0.1 wt%]
24 - 261.67 27 Gauge Cylindrical Constructs were UV-cured during print at 400mm/min UV scan speed per layer
10.1371/journal.pone.0216776
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [10 wt%]
  • Gellan Gum [0.1 wt%]
24 - 261.67 27 Gauge Cylindrical Constructs were UV-cured during print at 400mm/min UV scan speed per layer
10.1371/journal.pone.0216776
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [10 wt%]
  • Gellan Gum [0.2 wt%]
2 bar24 - 261.67 27 Gauge Cylindrical Constructs were UV-cured during print at 400mm/min UV scan speed per layer
10.1371/journal.pone.0216776
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [7.5 wt%]
  • Gellan Gum [0.5 wt%]
1.5 bar24 - 261.67 27 Gauge Cylindrical C2C12 Myoblasts (4) Constructs were UV-cured during print at 400mm/min UV scan speed per layer
10.1371/journal.pone.0216776
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [7.5 wt%]
  • Gellan Gum [0.2 wt%]
1.2 bar24 - 261.67 27 Gauge Cylindrical C2C12 Myoblasts (4) Constructs were UV-cured during print at 400mm/min UV scan speed per layer
10.1088/1758-5090/ab063f
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [10 wt%]
1 bar - 2 bar25 - 26 27 Gauge Cylindrical C2C12 Myoblasts (6) UV crosslinking occurred post printing.
10.1088/1758-5090/8/3/035013
  • PCL [100 wt%]
700 kPa802.5 - 3.3333 250 µm Conical PCL Mol Wt = 65,000
10.1088/1758-5090/8/3/035013
  • PLGA [100 wt%]
600 kPa1404.166667 250 µm Conical PLGA Mol Wt = 50,000 - 75,000
10.1088/1758-5090/8/3/035013
  • PLA [100 wt%]
700 kPa1907.5 300 µm Conical PLA Mol Wt. = 10,000. PCL was used as a protectivve layer for the cell laden hydrogel when printing the PLGA or PLA.
10.1088/1758-5090/8/3/035013
  • Alginate [4 wt%]
30 kPa181.3333 21 Gauge Conical NIH3T3 Fibroblasts (1) CaCl2 Crosslinking occurred post printing.
10.1016/jbioactmat.2020.04.017
  • PLGA [60 wt%]
1.5 bar - 2 bar8 25 Gauge Cylindrical PLGA had an LA/GA=50/50. It was dissolved in Formic acid for printing
10.1016/jbioactmat.2020.04.017
  • Pluronic F127 [40 wt%]
1.5 bar - 2 bar11 25 Gauge Cylindrical
10.1016/j.jiec.2020.04.021
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [20 wt%]
  • PLGA Nanofibers [1 wt%]
10 kPa353 400 µm Cylindrical NIH3T3 Fibroblasts (3.3333) PLGA nanofibers were fabricated via electrospinning. Crosslinking occurred post-printing.
10.1088/1758-5082/5/3/035001
  • Gelatin [20 wt%]
  • Alginate [2 wt%]
10 kPa - 20 kPa377.5 830 µm Conical Multiple parameters were optimized. Hydrogel crosslinked post-print with 2% w/v CaCl2
10.1088/1758-5082/5/3/035001
  • PEGDA [20 wt%]
  • Alginate [10 wt%]
7 kPa - 13 kPa7.5 610 µm Conical Multiple parameters were optimized. PEGDA was UV crosslinked with 1% Irgacure 2959
10.1016/j.bprint.2018.e00038
  • PLGA [66 wt%]
4 bar451 400 µm Cylindrical PLGA(85:15 LA:GA) was printed in a DMSO solution with various proteins.
10.1088/1748-605X/ab3c74
  • Alginate [0.8 wt%]
  • Gelatin [4.1 wt%]
  • Glycerol [10%]
40 kPa - 60 kPa202 27 Gauge Cylindrical Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells (5) The ink was cooled to 0°C prior to printing. Scaffolds were crosslinked with 2% (w/v) CaCl2 solution for 10 min
10.1088/1748-605X/ab3c74
  • Alginate [1.3 wt%]
  • Gelatin [4.1 wt%]
  • Glycerol [10%]
40 kPa - 60 kPa202 27 Gauge Cylindrical Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells (5) The ink was cooled to 0°C prior to printing. Scaffolds were crosslinked with 2% (w/v) CaCl2 solution for 10 min
10.1088/1748-605X/ab3c74
  • Alginate [1.8 wt%]
  • Gelatin [4.1 wt%]
  • Glycerol [10%]
40 kPa - 60 kPa202 27 Gauge Cylindrical Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells (5) The ink was cooled to 0°C prior to printing. Scaffolds were crosslinked with 2% (w/v) CaCl2 solution for 10 min
10.1088/1748-605X/ab3c74
  • Alginate [2.3 wt%]
  • Gelatin [4.1 wt%]
  • Glycerol [10%]
40 kPa - 60 kPa202 27 Gauge Cylindrical Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells (5) The ink was cooled to 0°C prior to printing. Scaffolds were crosslinked with 2% (w/v) CaCl2 solution for 10 min
10.1088/1758-5090/7/4/045002
  • Gelatin [5 wt%]
  • Alginate [1 wt%]
200.03 25 Gauge Cylindrical Lung Carcinoma Cells(A549) (1) Crosslinking occurred post-printing
10.1088/1758-5090/7/4/045002
  • Gelatin [7 wt%]
  • Alginate [1 wt%]
190.03 25 Gauge Cylindrical Lung Carcinoma Cells(A549) (1) Crosslinking occurred post-printing
10.1016/j.actbio.2020.07.016
  • Gelatin [4.1 wt%]
  • Alginate [0.8 wt%]
30 kPa - 40 kPa102 27 Gauge Conical Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells (5) Crosslinking occurred post-printing
10.1016/j.actbio.2020.07.016
  • Gelatin [4.1 wt%]
  • Alginate [1.8 wt%]
30 kPa - 40 kPa102 27 Gauge Conical Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells (5) Crosslinking occurred post-printing
10.1088/1758-5090/aa6265
  • pHPMA-lac-PEG Methacrylated [19.5 wt%]
  • Hyaluronic Acid Methacrylated [0.5 wt%]
100 kPa - 130 kPa3740 Methacrylated pHPMA-lac-PEG is a triblock coplymer composed of two poly[N-(2-hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide mono/dilactate]The triblock polymer has 10% methacrylation, and PEG block with 10MW. The PCL and the hydrogel were coprinted. Valve opening time varied from .0003 to .0013.
10.1088/1758-5090/aa6265
  • PCL [100 wt%]
300 kPa801 560 µm Conical After printing the entire construct was irradiated for an additional 69 seconds.
10.1088/1758-5090/8/4/045002
  • Agarose [2 wt%]
200 kPa37 Bone Marrow Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (20)
10.1088/1758-5090/8/4/045002
  • Alginate [3.5 wt%]
200 kPa21 Bone Marrow Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (20) Additional post crosslinking occurred with 50mM CaCl2 bath for 15 minutes.
10.1088/1758-5090/8/4/045002
  • BioINK [100 wt%]
140 kPa21 Bone Marrow Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (20) BioINK is a commercially available specialty ink from RegenHU.ink . It is PEGMA based, and for crosslinking UV light was used for 15 minutes after printing.
10.1088/1758-5090/8/4/045002
  • Gelatin [10 wt%]
60 kPa28 Bone Marrow Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (20) UV light was used for 15 minutes for post crosslinking.
10.1088/1758-5090/8/4/045002
  • PCL [100 wt%]
450 kPa70 25 Gauge Cylindrical PCL molecular weight 45,000
10.1088/1758-5090/aa8cb7
  • P(AGE-co-G) [5 wt%]
  • Hyaluronic Acid Thiolated [5 wt%]
  • Hyaluronic Acid [1 wt%]
1 kPa 330 µm Cylindrical Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells (6) P(AGE-co-G) stands for poly(allyl glycidyl ether-co-glycidyl).
10.1088/1758-5090/aa8cb7
  • PCL [100 wt%]
3 kPa935 250 µm Cylindrical
10.1007/s10856-020-06374-w
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [10 wt%]
50 kPa235 25 Gauge Conical Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (4) Crosslinking occurred post printing. Note: Paper reports that the printhead was at a temperature of 19C, but the cartridge heater was set to 23C.
10.1007/s10856-019-6335-6
  • PCL [100 wt%]
16012 420 µm Cylindrical 80,000 g/mol PCL
10.1002/jbmm.a.35393
  • Gelatin [10 wt%]
  • Alginate [2 wt%]
402 27 Gauge Conical Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells (10) Crosslinking occurred post printing
10.1002/jbmm.a.35393
  • Gelatin [10 wt%]
402 27 Gauge Conical Thermally dissipated after printing to create hollow channels.
10.1021/acsami.9b19037
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [7.5 wt%]
  • Kappa Carrageenan [1 wt%]
  • Nanosilicates [2 wt%]
4015 400 µm Conical Primary Human Bone Marrow-Derived Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Crosslinking occurred post printing
10.1021/acsami.7b13602
  • Nanosilicates [6 wt%]
  • Kappa Carrageenan [2.5 wt%]
404 23 Gauge Cylindrical MC3T3-E1 Mouse Preostoblasts Crosslinking occurred post printing
10.1002/adhm.201901580
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [10 wt%]
  • Kappa Carrageenan [1 wt%]
  • Nanosilicates [2 wt%]
N/A 3720 400 µm Cylindrical Crosslinking occurred post printing
10.1016/j.msec.2019.110530
  • Alginate [2 wt%]
  • Gelatin [8 wt%]
283.5 160 µm Cylindrical Primary Rat Schwann Cells (2) Crosslinking occurred post printing
10.1016/j.actbio.2018.01.044
  • Polyurethane [25 wt%]
  • [ ]
80 kPa378 410 µm Cylindrical Primary Human Dermal Fibroblasts (1)
10.1088/1758-5082/6/3/035001
  • Gelatin [10 wt%]
  • Alginate [1 wt%]
  • Fibrinogen [2 wt%]
25 25 Gauge Cylindrical Hela Pancreatic Cancer Cells (1) 3wt% CaCl2 was gently added to the construct. After printing the construct was immersed in 20 U ml-1 thrombin for 15 minutes.
10.1088/1758-5090/aacfc3
  • Hydroxypropyl Chitin [3 wt%]
  • [ ]
N/A 375 260 µm Cylindrical hiPSCs (1) A variety of printing pressures, concentrations, and speeds were tested. Furthermore, at 37 C printability was high, however cell viability was low.
10.1088/1758-5090/aba503
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [7.5 wt%]
  • Alginate [2 wt%]
50 kPa - 100 kPa252 - 6 23 Gauge Cylindrical Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (8) Crosslinking occurred post printing.
10.1088/1758-5090/aba503
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [10 wt%]
  • Alginate [1 wt%]
50 kPa - 100 kPa252 - 6 23 Gauge Cylindrical Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (8) Crosslinking occurred post printing.
10.1088/1758-5090/aba503
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [10 wt%]
  • Alginate [2 wt%]
50 kPa - 100 kPa252 - 6 23 Gauge Cylindrical Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (8) Crosslinking occurred post printing.
10.1088/1758-5090/ab98e5
  • Alginate [2 wt%]
  • [ ]
17 kPa254 410 µm Cylindrical NIH 3T3 Fibroblasts (1) Precrosslinking was done with the CaCO3. Post printing crosslinking was done with 100mM CaCl2 for 10 minutes.
10.1088/1758-5090/ab8708
  • PCL [100 wt%]
  • [ ]
1 bar786 30 Gauge Cylindrical 50,000 g/mol molecular weight of PCL
10.1088/1758-5090/ab8708
  • Alginate [3.5 wt%]
  • [ ]
0.5 bar254 23 Gauge Conical Primary Porcine Bone Marrow Stromal Cells (15) PCL scaffolds were first immersed in 45mM CaCl2 overnight to initiate crosslinking process during the printing of the hydrogel. Bone marrow-reived stromal cells and chondrocytes were added at a 3:1 ratio.
10.1088/1758-5090/ab8708
  • Alginate [3.5 wt%]
  • [ ]
0.5 bar254 24 Gauge Conical Primary Porcine Cartilage Chondrocytes (5) PCL scaffolds were first immersed in 45mM CaCl2 overnight to initiate crosslinking process during the printing of the hydrogel. Bone marrow-reived stromal cells and chondrocytes were added at a 3:1 ratio.
10.1088/1758-5090/ab8708
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [5 wt%]
  • [ ]
0.3 bar132 25 Gauge Conical Primary Porcine Bone Marrow Stromal Cells (15) PCL scaffolds were first immersed in 45mM CaCl2 overnight to initiate crosslinking process during the printing of the hydrogel. Bone marrow-reived stromal cells and chondrocytes were added at a 3:1 ratio.
10.1088/1758-5090/ab8708
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [5 wt%]
  • [ ]
0.3 bar132 26 Gauge Conical Primary Porcine Cartilage Chondrocytes (5) PCL scaffolds were first immersed in 45mM CaCl2 overnight to initiate crosslinking process during the printing of the hydrogel. Bone marrow-reived stromal cells and chondrocytes were added at a 3:1 ratio.
10.1088/1758-5090/ab8708
  • Alginate [3.5 wt%]
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [5 wt%]
1.3 bar134 27 Gauge Conical Primary Porcine Bone Marrow Stromal Cells (15) PCL scaffolds were first immersed in 45mM CaCl2 overnight to initiate crosslinking process during the printing of the hydrogel. Bone marrow-reived stromal cells and chondrocytes were added at a 3:1 ratio.
10.1088/1758-5090/ab8708
  • Alginate [3.5 wt%]
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [5 wt%]
1.3 bar134 28 Gauge Conical Primary Porcine Cartilage Chondrocytes (5) PCL scaffolds were first immersed in 45mM CaCl2 overnight to initiate crosslinking process during the printing of the hydrogel. Bone marrow-reived stromal cells and chondrocytes were added at a 3:1 ratio.
10.1088/1758-5090/ab0f59
  • PLA [100 wt%]
  • [ ]
N/A 23090 200 µm Cylindrical Mesenchymal stem cells were seeded onto the PLA
10.1088/1758-5090/ab1452
  • Cellink RGD Bionk [100 wt%]
  • [ ]
5 kPa - 15 kPa25175 - 200 437 µm Conical Primary Juvenile Mice Interstitial Cells (10) Specialty nanocellulose-alginate hydrogel bioink from Cellink with RGD motifs.
10.1088/1758-5090/ab0098
  • PCL [100 wt%]
  • [ ]
290 kPa - 310 kPa1005 300 µm Cylindrical PCL molecular weight = 45,000 g mol-1.
10.1088/1758-5090/ab03ed
  • Glycidyl Methacrylate Hyaluronic Acid [4 wt%]
  • Alginate [0.5 wt%]
0.5 bar255 510 µm Cylindrical L929 Fibroblasts (1.5) The Ink also consisted of .5% v/v NVP, .9% w/v NaCl. The ink was also printed into a gelatin slurry.
10.1016/j.jmbbm.2019.103533
  • PCL [100 wt%]
  • [ ]
300 kPa905 330 µm Cylindrical PCL molecular weight = 80,000 gmol-1.
10.1016/j.jmbbm.2019.103533
  • Alginate [4 wt%]
  • [ ]
45 kPa371.5 19 Gauge Cylindrical BEL-7402 Human Hepatocarcinoma Cells (1) Crosslinking occurred post printing.
10.1016/j.jmbbm.2019.103533
  • Alginate [4 wt%]
  • B-Tricalcium Phosphate [1 wt%]
45 kPa371.5 19 Gauge Cylindrical BEL-7402 Human Hepatocarcinoma Cells (1) Crosslinking occurred post printing.
10.1016/j.jmbbm.2019.103533
  • Alginate [4 wt%]
  • B-Tricalcium Phosphate [8 wt%]
50 kPa371.5 19 Gauge Cylindrical BEL-7402 Human Hepatocarcinoma Cells (1) Crosslinking occurred post printing.
10.1088/1758-5090/aae543
  • Collagen Methacrylated [1.5 mg/mL]
  • B-Tricalcium Phosphate [0.5 mg/mL]
4 kPa2550 28 Gauge Cylindrical Primary Human Hepatocytes (5) Crosslinking occurred post printing.
10.1016/j.msec.2020.111072
  • PCL [100 wt%]
  • [ ]
500 kPa1000.334 180 µm Cylindrical 90,000-70,000 molecular weight
10.1016/j.msec.2020.111072
  • PCL [100 wt%]
  • [ ]
500 kPa1001.167 250 µm Cylindrical 90,000-70,000 molecular weight
10.1016/j.msec.2020.111072
  • PCL [100 wt%]
  • [ ]
500 kPa1001.583 330 µm Cylindrical 90,000-70,000 molecular weight
10.1016/j.msec.2020.111072
  • PCL [100 wt%]
  • [ ]
500 kPa1001.417 410 µm Cylindrical 90,000-70,000 molecular weight
10.1016/j.msec.2020.111072
  • PCL [100 wt%]
  • [ ]
500 kPa1000.667 580 µm Cylindrical 90,000-70,000 molecular weight
10.1016/j.msec.2020.111072
  • PCL [100 wt%]
  • [ ]
500 kPa1000.917 1070 µm Cylindrical 90,000-70,000 molecular weight
https://ojs.cnr.ncsu.edu/index.php/BioRes/article/view/BioRes_15_4_7357_Han_Nanocellulose_Alginate_Gelatin_Bioinks/7935
  • Alginate [2.5 wt%]
  • Gelatin [8 wt%]
  • Cellulose Nanofibrillated [0.75 wt%]
375 260 µm Conical
10.1016/j.bprint.2020.e00092
  • Alginate [2.5 wt%]
  • [ ]
150 kPa - 160 kPa255 330 µm Cylindrical This print used coaxial extrusion with a core of pluronic F127 mixed with 5wt% CaCl2 for post printing crosslinking and a precrosslinked alginate shell using .2 wt% CaCl2.
10.1016/j.bprint.2020.e00092
  • Pluronic F127 [30 wt%]
  • [ ]
50 kPa - 140 kPa255 1070 µm Cylindrical This print used coaxial extrusion with a core of pluronic F127 mixed with 5wt% CaCl2 for post printing crosslinking and a precrosslinked alginate shell using .2 wt% CaCl2.

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