3D printing and bioprinting has witnessed a phenomal rise in the fields of tissue engineering and regeneraive medicine over the past few years. Additive manufacturing techniques offer researchers a unique toolset to recapitulate the spatial complexity and heterogeneity of native tissue at both nano and micro scale. More importantly, it allows researchers to combine multiple elements - matrix proteins, cells, biomolecules - in a single construct in precise patterns to develop relevant in vitro models. In 2019 alone, over a 1000 citations involving 3D printing can be found. However, due to the nascent nature of this field, every research lab has developed their own specalized bioinks that are printable under specialized conditions using either custom-made or commercially available 3D printers. Consequently, this has led to the existence of a massive knowledge base regarding 3D printable materials and their printing conditions, scattered across several journal articles and under different topics. This poses a challenge for researchers who wish to apply new, or established 3D printing techniques, and want a reliable source of information regarding 3D printing conditions. 

Thus, we have developed a public repository/database of  articles involving 3D printing in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine that is easily searchable by any user who wishes to enter this field. This database is free for use, and is aimed at systematically collating the complex set of parameters that dictate material 3D printing.

Additionally, this database would be best served by the cpontinuous addition of new information. We have created an open survey that allows users to enter their published information regarding their 3D printing and bioprinting conditions, which would then be added to this database. Please note that the current database is limited only to extrusion-based 3D printing. We are working on a database for other printing techniques. Thank you for your patience! 

Select a material below to view all associated publications, printing conditions, and heat maps to help visualize the 3D printing parameter space. 

DOI Components Pressure Temperature (C) Speed (mm/s) Needle Cells (e6/ml) Additional notes
10.1002/jbm.b.34347
  • Polystyrene [100 wt%]
900 kPa1553 - 5 400 µm Cylindrical
10.1002/jbm.b.34347
  • Glass Sugar [100 wt%]
70 kPa - 80 kPa15030 - 10 300 µm Cylindrical
10.1021/acsbiomaterials.6b00031
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [5 wt%]
0.5 bar2310 400 µm Cylindrical Placenta BeWo Cells (10) fibronectin added
10.1021/acsbiomaterials.6b00031
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [10 wt%]
0.7 bar2810 400 µm Cylindrical Placenta BeWo Cells (10) fibronectin added
10.1002/bit.26850
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [10 wt%]
0.5 bar - 1 bar2310 400 µm Cylindrical Primary Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (10) fibronectin added
10.1002/jbm.a.36350
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [10 wt%]
0.5 bar - 1 bar2310 400 µm Cylindrical Placenta BeWo Cells (2) fibronectin, placental dECM added
10.1088/1758-5090/ab078a
  • Fibrinogen [10 wt%]
  • Gelatin [5 wt%]
0.5 bar - 2 bar22 - 262 - 10 400 µm Conical Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (2)
10.1088/1758-5090/ab078a
  • Fibrinogen [10 wt%]
  • Gelatin [5 wt%]
0.5 bar - 2 bar22 - 262 - 10 400 µm Conical Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells (2)
10.1088/1758-5090/ab078a
  • PCL [100 wt%]
5 bar1202 400 µm Cylindrical PCL molecular weight = 43,000.
10.1089/ten.tec.2019.0112
  • PCL [100 wt%]
4.5 bar1601.3 22 Gauge Cylindrical PCL molecular weight = 50 kDa
10.1089/ten.tec.2019.0112
  • PCL [100 wt%]
5 bar16012 24 Gauge Cylindrical PCL molecular weight = 50 kDa
10.1089/ten.tec.2019.0112
  • PCL [100 wt%]
5.5 bar1601 27 Gauge Cylindrical PCL molecular weight = 50 kDa
10.1089/ten.tec.2019.0112
  • PCL [85 wt%]
  • Hydroxyapatite [15 wt%]
4.5 bar1601.2 22 Gauge Cylindrical PCL molecular weight = 50 kDa
10.1089/ten.tec.2019.0112
  • PCL [85 wt%]
  • Hydroxyapatite [15 wt%]
5 bar1600.5 24 Gauge Cylindrical PCL molecular weight = 50 kDa
10.1089/ten.tec.2019.0112
  • PCL [85 wt%]
  • Hydroxyapatite [15 wt%]
5.5 bar1600.8 27 Gauge Cylindrical PCL molecular weight = 50 kDa
10.1089/ten.tec.2019.0112
  • PCL [70 wt%]
  • Hydroxyapatite [30 wt%]
5 bar1601 22 Gauge Cylindrical PCL molecular weight = 50 kDa
10.1089/ten.tec.2019.0112
  • PCL [70 wt%]
  • Hydroxyapatite [30 wt%]
5.5 bar1600.8 24 Gauge Cylindrical PCL molecular weight = 50 kDa
10.1089/ten.tec.2019.0112
  • PCL [70 wt%]
  • Hydroxyapatite [30 wt%]
6.5 bar1600.5 27 Gauge Cylindrical PCL molecular weight = 50 kDa
10.1016/j.actbio.2019.03.041
  • PCL [100 wt%]
5 bar1601.2 22 Gauge Cylindrical PCL molecular weight = 50 kDa
10.1016/j.actbio.2019.03.041
  • PCL [85 wt%]
  • Hydroxyapatite [15 wt%]
5 bar1600.9 22 Gauge Cylindrical PCL molecular weight = 50 kDa
10.1016/j.actbio.2019.03.041
  • PCL [70 wt%]
  • Hydroxyapatite [30 wt%]
5.5 bar1600.8 22 Gauge Cylindrical PCL molecular weight = 50 kDa
10.1089/ten.tec.2018.0307
  • PCL [100 wt%]
5 bar1601.2 22 Gauge Cylindrical PCL molecular weight = 50 kDa
10.1089/ten.tec.2018.0307
  • PCL [70 wt%]
  • Hydroxyapatite [30 wt%]
5.7 bar1600.5 22 Gauge Cylindrical PCL molecular weight = 50 kDa
10.1089/ten.tec.2018.0307
  • PCL [70 wt%]
  • Beta Tricalcium Phosphate [30 wt%]
5.5 bar1600.8 22 Gauge Cylindrical PCL molecular weight = 50 kDa
10.1089/ten.tec.2018.0307
  • PCL [70 wt%]
  • Hydroxyapatite [15 wt%]
  • Beta Tricalcium Phosphate [15 wt%]
5.7 bar1600.7 22 Gauge Cylindrical PCL molecular weight = 50 kDa
10.1088/1758-5090/aa6370
  • PLGA [100 wt%]
9 bar1101.5 200 µm Cylindrical LA:GA = 50:50, 9.73 kDa, ester endcap
10.1088/1758-5090/aa6370
  • PLGA [100 wt%]
9 bar1350.7 200 µm Cylindrical LA:GA = 50:50, 30.3 kDa, ester endcap
10.1088/1758-5090/aa6370
  • PLGA [100 wt%]
9 bar1650.7 200 µm Cylindrical LA:GA = 60:40, 42.6 kDa, ester endcap
10.1088/1758-5090/aa6370
  • PLGA [100 wt%]
9 bar1501.5 200 µm Cylindrical LA:GA = 60:40, 33.8 kDa, Acid cap
10.1088/1758-5090/aa6370
  • PLGA [100 wt%]
9 bar1700.5 200 µm Cylindrical LA:GA = 85:15, 61.9kDa, ester cap
10.1088/1758-5090/aa6370
  • PLGA [100 wt%]
7.5 bar951.5 400 µm Cylindrical LA:GA = 50:50, 9.73 kDa, ester cap
10.1088/1758-5090/aa6370
  • PLGA [100 wt%]
8 bar1251.5 400 µm Cylindrical LA:GA = 50:50, 30.3 kDa, Ester endcap
10.1088/1758-5090/aa6370
  • PLGA [100 wt%]
9 bar1400.5 400 µm Cylindrical LA:GA = 60:40, 42.6 kDa, Ester endcap
10.1088/1758-5090/aa6370
  • PLGA [100 wt%]
8 bar1301 400 µm Cylindrical LA:GA = 60:40, 33.8 kDa, acid endcap
10.1088/1758-5090/aa6370
  • PLGA [100 wt%]
8 bar1450.5 400 µm Cylindrical LA:GA = 85:15, 61.9 kDa, ester endcap
10.1002/jbm.a.36426
  • PLGA [100 wt%]
9 bar1654 200 µm Cylindrical LA:GA = 85:15, 35 kD
10.1016/j.biomaterials.2018.09.022
  • PLCL [85 wt%]
  • PLGA [15 wt%]
6.5 bar1554.2 200 µm Cylindrical Lactic Acid: Caprolactone = 70:30. 45-55kD
10.1088/1758-5090/8/4/045015
  • Polyurethane [40 wt%]
250 kPa251.67 200 µm Cylindrical
10.1038/nbt.3413
  • Gelatin [35 mg/mL]
  • Fibrinogen [20 mg/mL]
  • Hyaluronic Acid [3 mg/mL]
  • Glycerol [10 %]
50 kPa - 80 kPa181 - 3 300 µm Conical Primary Human Amniotic Fluid-derived Stem Cells (5)
10.1038/nbt.3413
  • Gelatin [45 mg/mL]
  • Fibrinogen [30 mg/mL]
  • Hyaluronic Acid [3 mg/mL]
  • Glycerol [10 %]
50 kPa - 80 kPa181 - 3 300 µm Conical Primary Rabbit Ear Chondrocytes (40)
10.1038/nbt.3413
  • Gelatin [35 mg/mL]
  • Fibrinogen [20 mg/mL]
  • Hyaluronic Acid [3 mg/mL]
  • Glycerol [10 %]
50 kPa - 80 kPa181 - 3 300 µm Conical C2C12 Myoblasts (3)
10.1038/nbt.3413
  • PCL [100 wt%]
800 kPa95 250 µm Conical PCL Mw = 43,000 - 50,000.
10.1038/nbt.3413
  • Pluronic F127 [33 wt%]
  • Glycerol [10 %]
200 kPa18 250 µm Conical
10.1016/j.actbio.2018.02.007
  • Fibrinogen [20 mg/mL]
  • Gelatin [30 mg/mL]
  • Hyaluronic Acid [3 mg/mL]
  • Glycerol [10 %]
100 kPa181.67 200 µm Conical Primary Neonatal Rat Ventricular Cardiomyocytes (10)
10.1016/j.actbio.2018.02.007
  • PCL [100 wt%]
750 kPa981.67 300 µm Conical PCL Mw = 43,000 - 50,000.
10.1038/s41598-018-29968-5
  • Fibrinogen [20 mg/mL]
  • Gelatin [35 mg/mL]
  • Hyaluronic Acid [3 mg/mL]
  • Glycerol [10 %]
50 kPa - 70 kPa181 - 3 300 µm Conical Primary Human Muscle Progenitor Cells (30)
10.1038/s41598-018-29968-5
  • Gelatin [35 mg/mL]
  • Hyaluronic Acid [3 mg/mL]
  • Glycerol [10 %]
50 kPa - 80 kPa182.67 300 µm Conical
10.1038/s41598-018-29968-5
  • PCL [100 wt%]
780 kPa951.25 300 µm Conical PCL Mw = 43,000 - 50,000.
10.1016/j.bprint.2018.e00028
  • Hyaluronic Acid [3 mg/mL]
  • Gelatin [30 mg/mL]
  • Fibrinogen [20 mg/mL]
  • Glycerol [10 %]
60 kPa181 - 3 300 µm Conical Human Epidermal Keratinocytes (10)
10.1016/j.bprint.2018.e00028
  • Hyaluronic Acid [3 mg/mL]
  • Gelatin [30 mg/mL]
  • Fibrinogen [20 mg/mL]
  • Glycerol [10 %]
60 kPa181 - 3 300 µm Conical Human Epidermal Fibroblasts (5)
10.1016/j.bprint.2018.e00028
  • Polyurethane [100 wt%]
1500 kPa1603.34 - 6.67 200 µm Conical
10.1002/bit.26514
  • Hydroxyapatite [60 wt%]
  • Beta Tricalcium Phosphate [40 wt%]
600 kPa251.67 610 µm Conical
10.1002/bit.26514
  • Hydroxyapatite [60 wt%]
  • Beta Tricalcium Phosphate [40 wt%]
  • Zirconium oxide [10 wt%]
600 kPa251.67 610 µm Conical
10.1089/ten.tec.2019.0217
  • Polystyrene [100 wt%]
900 kPa1553 - 5 400 µm Cylindrical
10.1089/ten.tec.2019.0217
  • Glass Sugar [100 wt%]
70 kPa - 80 kPa15510 - 30 300 µm Cylindrical
10.1016/j.bprint.2020.e00076
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [7.5 wt%]
0.4 bar234 27 Gauge Conical L929 Fibroblasts (1) These conditions are compatible with engraving technology. Due to the low viscosity of the ink it might not be possible to be printed without a "mold" (i.e. engraved fiber) or sacrificial material
10.1089/ten.tea.2019.0204
  • PCL [90 wt%]
  • Hydroxyapatite [10 wt%]
5.2 bar1601.1 22 Gauge Cylindrical
10.1089/ten.tea.2019.0204
  • PCL [80 wt%]
  • Hydroxyapatite [10 wt%]
  • Beta Tricalcium Phosphate [10 wt%]
6 bar1601.3 22 Gauge Cylindrical
10.1089/ten.tea.2019.0204
  • PCL [70 wt%]
  • Hydroxyapatite [10 wt%]
  • Beta Tricalcium Phosphate [20 wt%]
6.2 bar1600.7 22 Gauge Cylindrical
10.1021/acsbiomaterials.6b00026
  • Polypropylene fumarate (PPF) [85 wt%]
  • Diethyl fumarate (DEF) [15 wt%]
2 bar - 4 bar555 - 20 250 µm Conical
10.1021/acsbiomaterials.6b00026
  • Polypropylene fumarate (PPF) [90 wt%]
  • Diethyl fumarate (DEF) [10 wt%]
2 bar - 4 bar555 - 10 250 µm Conical
10.1080/09205063.2017.1286184
  • Polypropylene fumarate (PPF) [75 wt%]
  • Diethyl fumarate (DEF) [12 wt%]
  • Hydroxyapatite [10 wt%]
  • SDS/DMSO [3 wt%]
0.4 bar - 0.8 bar55 - 651.5 - 10 18 Gauge Conical
10.1080/09205063.2017.1286184
  • Polypropylene fumarate (PPF) [76 wt%]
  • Diethyl fumarate (DEF) [12 wt%]
  • Hydroxyapatite [10 wt%]
0.4 bar - 0.8 bar55 - 651.5 - 10 18 Gauge Conical
10.1080/09205063.2017.1286184
  • Polypropylene fumarate (PPF) [75 wt%]
  • Diethyl fumarate (DEF) [15 wt%]
0.3 bar - 0.3 bar50 - 5012 - 12 18 Gauge Conical
10.1080/09205063.2017.1286184
  • Polypropylene fumarate (PPF) [82 wt%]
  • Diethyl fumarate (DEF) [15 wt%]
  • Hydroxyapatite [1.25 wt%]
0.4 bar - 0.8 bar55 - 651.5 - 10 18 Gauge Conical
10.1080/09205063.2017.1286184
  • Polypropylene fumarate (PPF) [82 wt%]
  • Diethyl fumarate (DEF) [14 wt%]
  • Hydroxyapatite [2.5 wt%]
0.4 bar - 0.8 bar55 - 651.5 - 10 18 Gauge Conical
10.1080/09205063.2017.1286184
  • Polypropylene fumarate (PPF) [79 wt%]
  • Diethyl fumarate (DEF) [14 wt%]
  • Hydroxyapatite [5 wt%]
0.4 bar - 0.8 bar55 - 651.5 - 10 18 Gauge Conical
10.1080/09205063.2017.1286184
  • Polypropylene fumarate (PPF) [75 wt%]
  • Diethyl fumarate (DEF) [13 wt%]
  • Hydroxyapatite [10 wt%]
0.4 bar - 0.8 bar55 - 651.5 - 10 18 Gauge Conical
10.1021/acsbiomaterials.6b00641
  • Polypropylene fumarate (PPF) [85 wt%]
  • Diethyl fumarate (DEF) [15 wt%]
0.8 bar - 1.6 bar55 - 555 - 5 340 µm Conical
10.1002/adfm.201907145
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [7.5 wt%]
0.8 bar - 1.3 bar19 - 236 400 µm Cylindrical Primary Adult Human Dermal Fibroblasts (2) Each layer was exposed to UV for 5 secs directly after printing. This helped stabilize the print's large, complex shape of a nose throughout the 6 hour print duration time. Intermittent UV exposure was crucial for a successful print.
10.1002/adfm.201907145
  • PEG Norbornene [5 wt%]
  • PEG Thiol [5 wt%]
  • Alginate [4 wt%]
3.5 bar - 4.5 bar26 - 266 400 µm Cylindrical
https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.119.316155
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [10 wt%]
  • Collagen Methacrylated [0.25 wt%]
  • Laminin [0.09375 mg/mL]
  • Fibronectin [0.09375 mg/mL]
28 kPa - 38 kPa2710 26 Gauge Cylindrical Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (15) Rectilinear infill pattern, 40% infill, 0.6mm layer height. Printed in gelatin slurry. Crosslinked during printing, followed by 20 seconds crosslinking on each six sides of print.
10.1016/j.bprint.2016.08.003
  • Cellulose Nanofibrillated [2 wt%]
  • Alginate [0.5 wt%]
40 kPa235 300 µm Cylindrical Primary Human Nasoseptal Cartilage (20) Constructs were crosslinked with 100mM CaCl2 for 10 minutes.
10.1007/s10856-019-6258-2
  • Pluronic F127 [60 wt%]
  • Collagen [6 wt%]
50 kPa - 85 kPa373.333 337 µm Cylindrical Primary Rat Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (10)
10.1089/ten.TEC.2020.0053
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [5 wt%]
300 kPa226 260 µm Cylindrical Primary Rat Bone Mesenchymal Stem Cells (5) Cooling system implemented for the receiving platform.
10.3390/bioengineering5030055
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [5 wt%]
  • Alginate-2-Hydroxyethyl Methacrylate [3 wt%]
3.8 psi374.3333 400 µm Cylindrical Construct crosslinked with Irgacure 2959 (0.1 wt%, .12mW/cm2) post print
10.3390/bioengineering5030055
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [5 wt%]
  • Silicate Nanoparticles [1 wt%]
2.8 psi304.3333 400 µm Cylindrical Construct crosslinked with Irgacure 2959 (0.1 wt%, .12mW/cm2) post print
10.1039/C9BM01271K
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [4 wt%]
  • Chitosan [4 wt%]
400 kPa408 200 µm Cylindrical Construct crosslinked with Irgacure 2959 (0.5 wt%, .50mW/cm2) post print
10.1039/C9BM01271K
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [4 wt%]
  • Chitosan [4 wt%]
500 kPa405 150 µm Cylindrical Construct crosslinked with Irgacure 2959 (0.5 wt%, 50mW/cm2) post print
10.1016/j.jmbbm.2017.12.018
  • Alginate [5 wt%]
  • Gelatin [6 wt%]
103 kPa375 27 Gauge Cylindrical
10.1016/j.jmbbm.2017.12.018
  • Alginate [5 wt%]
  • Gelatin [8 wt%]
172 kPa375 27 Gauge Cylindrical
10.1016/j.jmbbm.2017.12.018
  • Alginate [7 wt%]
  • Gelatin [8 wt%]
193 kPa375 27 Gauge Cylindrical
10.1016/j.jmbbm.2017.12.018
  • Alginate [9 wt%]
  • Gelatin [6 wt%]
276 kPa375 27 Gauge Cylindrical
10.1016/j.jmbbm.2017.12.018
  • Alginate [5 wt%]
  • Gelatin [10 wt%]
310 kPa375 27 Gauge Cylindrical
10.1016/j.jmbbm.2017.12.018
  • Alginate [7 wt%]
  • Gelatin [6 wt%]
186 kPa375 27 Gauge Cylindrical
10.1002/adhm.201801631
  • Alginate [3 wt%]
  • Methylcellulose [9 wt%]
40 kPa - 50 kPa2510 840 µm Cylindrical Pancreatic Inslets were encapsulated into the scaffold. The constructs were also crosslinked with 70mM SrCl2 for 10 minutes.
10.1021/acsami.9b09782
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [5 wt%]
15 - 254 - 6 210 µm Cylindrical NIH 3T3 Fibroblasts (1) Construct crosslinked with Irgacure 2959 (0.5 wt%, 8mW/cm2, 40s) post print
10.1021/acsami.9b09782
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [5 wt%]
  • Silk Fibroin [1 wt%]
15 - 254 - 6 210 µm Cylindrical NIH 3T3 Fibroblasts (1) Construct crosslinked with Irgacure 2959 (0.5 wt%, 8mW/cm2, 40s) post print
10.1016/j.jmbbn.2019.06.014
  • Alginate [2 wt%]
  • Kappa Carrageenan [1.5 wt%]
50 kPa252 510 µm Cylindrical Primary Rabbit Adipose-Dervied Mesenchymal Stem Cells (5) CaSO4 was used at 1 wt% to initially crosslink the hydrogels
10.1016/j.jmbbn.2019.06.014
  • Alginate [2 wt%]
30 kPa254 510 µm Cylindrical Primary Rabbit Adipose-Dervied Mesenchymal Stem Cells (5) CaSO4 was used at 1 wt% to initially crosslink the hydrogels
10.1038/s41598-020-61606-c
  • Alginate [3 wt%]
50 kPa222.5 30 Gauge Cylindrical NIH 3T3 Fibroblasts (1) A pluronic F127 and laponite support bath was used. The bath also contained 1wt% CaCl2 .
10.1007/s42242-020-00076-6
  • Hyaluronic Acid [2 wt%]
  • Alginate [1 wt%]
  • Gelatin [3.75 wt%]
3 Bar372.3 25 Gauge Cylindrical Human Glial Cells (1.5)
10.1007/s42242-020-00076-6
  • Hyaluronic Acid [2 wt%]
  • Alginate [1 wt%]
  • Gelatin [7.5 wt%]
3 Bar372.3 25 Gauge Cylindrical Human Glial Cells (1.5)
10.1002/term.1682
  • PCL [100 wt%]
650 kPa801.333 250 µm Cylindrical PCL MW = 70,000 - 90,000
10.1002/term.1682
  • Alginate [4 wt%]
9 kPa226.666667 250 µm Conical Primary Human Nasal Septal Cartilage Chondrocyte (1) Alginate was dispensed in the lines between the lines of the PCL layers
10.1002/term.1682
  • Alginate [6 wt%]
20 kPa226.666667 250 µm Conical Primary Human Nasal Septal Cartilage Chondrocyte (1) Alginate was dispensed in the lines between the lines of the PCL layers
10.1002/jbm.a.37006
  • PCU [100 wt%]
N/A2206 400 µm Cylindrical An FDM printer was used. 0 µm in-plane pore size
10.1002/jbm.a.37006
  • PCU [100 wt%]
N/A2156 400 µm Cylindrical An FDM printer was used. 100 µm in-plane pore size, printing head temp was set to 220 C for first layer
10.1002/jbm.a.37006
  • PCU [100 wt%]
N/A2156 400 µm Cylindrical An FDM printer was used. 200 µm in-plane pore size, printing head temp was set to 215 C for first layer
10.1002/jbm.a.37006
  • PCU [100 wt%]
N/A2126 400 µm Cylindrical An FDM printer was used. 400 µm in-plane pore size, printing head temp was set to 220 C for first layer
10.1002/jbm.a.37006
  • PCU [100 wt%]
N/A2126 400 µm Cylindrical An FDM printer was used. 600 µm in-plane pore size, printing head temp was set to 220 C for first layer
10.1002/jbm.a.37006
  • PCU [100 wt%]
N/A2126 400 µm Cylindrical An FDM printer was used. 800 µm in-plane pore size, printing head temp was set to 220 C for first layer
10.1016/j.bprint.2020.e00076
  • PCL [100 wt%]
6.5 Bar1400.5 18 Gauge Cylindrical PCL molecular weight is 50KDa. PCL was engraved and then filled with low-viscosity photocurable inks(GelMA or E-Shell)
10.1016/j.bprint.2020.e00076
  • E-Shell 300 [100 wt%]
0.3 Bar2220 27 Gauge Conical
10.1016/j.bprint.2020.e00076
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [7.5 wt%]
0.4 Bar244 27 Gauge Conical L929 Fibroblasts (1)
10.1002/adfm.201801331
  • Hyaluronic Acid Adamantane [2 wt%]
  • Hyaluronic Acid β-cyclodextrin [2 wt%]
172 kPa250.416667 - 0.5 30 Gauge Cylindrical Used as a sacrificial ink to create a channel.
10.1002/adfm.201801331
  • Hyaluronic Acid β-cyclodextrin [1.5 wt%]
  • Hyaluronic Acid Adamantane Norbornene [1.5 wt%]
172 kPa250.416667 - 0.5 30 Gauge Cylindrical Supplemented with 4 mM thiolated RGD peptide and 1.2mM thiolated crosslinker. Crosslinking occurred postprinting.
10.1002/adhm.201901794
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [10 wt%]
  • Calcium Peroxide [0.5 wt%]
80 kPa420 23 Gauge Cylindrical NIH 3T3 Fibroblasts (5)
10.1016/j.actbio.2014.02.041
  • PCL [50 wt%]
  • pHMGCL Methacrylated [50 wt%]
500 kPa1404.16667 25 Gauge Cylindrical pHMGCL stands for poly(hydroxymethylglycolide-co-e-caprolactone). 20 C air was blown over the construct to facilitate solidification. PCL has a 79.1 kDA molecular weight.
10.1016/j.actbio.2014.02.041
  • PCL [50 wt%]
  • pHMGCL [50 wt%]
500 kPa1404.16667 25 Gauge Cylindrical pHMGCL stands for poly(hydroxymethylglycolide-co-e-caprolactone). 20 C air was blown over the construct to facilitate solidification. PCL has a 79.1 kDA molecular weight.
10.1016/j.actbio.2014.02.041
  • PCL [100 wt%]
500 kPa1604.1667 25 Gauge Cylindrical PCL has a 79.1 kDA molecular weight.
10.1021/acsbiomaterials.8b00903
  • Agarose [3 wt%]
  • Alginate [2 wt%]
65 psi - 75 psi37 30 Gauge Cylindrical
10.1016/j.msec.2019.110205
  • PVA [100 wt%]
NA18070 400 µm Cylindrical PVU was used as a sacrificial mold.
10.1016/j.msec.2019.110205
  • Alginate [20 mg/ml]
  • Agarose [18 mg/ml]
  • Platelet rich plasma (PRP) [20% v/v]
0.3 Bar3770 1600 µm Cylindrical H9C2 Myoblasts
10.1016/j.msec.2019.110205
  • Alginate [20 mg/ml]
  • Agarose [18 mg/ml]
  • Platelet rich plasma (PRP) [20% v/v]
0.3 Bar3770 1600 µm Cylindrical Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (4)
10.1088/1758-5090/aacdc7
  • Gelatin [8 wt%]
60 kPa213.3333 25 Gauge Conical
10.1088/1758-5090/aacdc7
  • Gelatin [6 wt%]
  • Alginate [3 wt%]
70 kPa213.3333 25 Gauge Conical
10.1088/1758-5090/aacdc7
  • Gelatin [5 wt%]
  • Alginate [6 wt%]
90 kPa213.3333 25 Gauge Conical
10.1088/1758-5090/aacdc7
  • Gelatin [4 wt%]
  • Alginate [7 wt%]
70 kPa213.3333 25 Gauge Conical
10.1088/1758-5090/aacdc7
  • Gelatin [4 wt%]
  • Alginate [8 wt%]
85 kPa213.3333 25 Gauge Conical
10.1088/1758-5090/aacdc7
  • Gelatin [4 wt%]
  • Alginate [9 wt%]
70 kPa213.3333 25 Gauge Conical
10.1016/j.bprint.2019.e00053
  • Alginate [2 wt%]
10 psi - 12.5 psi258 30 Gauge Cylindrical SK-N-BE(2) Neuroblasts (1) Gelatin support gel was used via the FRESH method
10.1016/j.dental.2019.08.114
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [12.5 wt%]
120 kPa - 150 kPa2510 - 12 25 Gauge Conical Primary Human Periodontal Ligament Cells (2) Crosslinking occurred post printing.
10.1016/j.dental.2019.08.114
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [15 wt%]
250 kPa - 280 kPa258 - 10 25 Gauge Conical
10.1016/j.dental.2019.08.114
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [10 wt%]
160 kPa - 200 kPa255 - 8 27 Gauge Conical
10.1016/j.dental.2019.08.114
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [12.5 wt%]
230 kPa - 250 kPa2510 - 12 27 Gauge Conical Primary Human Periodontal Ligament Cells (2) Crosslinking occurred post printing.
10.1016/j.dental.2019.08.114
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [15 wt%]
420 kPa - 450 kPa258 - 10 27 Gauge Conical
10.1021/acsami.7b04216
  • Alginate [3 wt%]
0.3 Bar25 25 Gauge Conical Constructs were submerged in A 40mg/ml CaCl2 bath.
10.1021/acsami.7b04216
  • Methylcellulose [1 wt%]
0.3 Bar25 25 Gauge Conical Constructs were submerged in A 40mg/ml CaCl2 bath.
10.1021/acsami.7b04216
  • Alginate [3 wt%]
  • Methylcellulose [1 wt%]
0.8 Bar25 25 Gauge Conical Constructs were submerged in A 40mg/ml CaCl2 bath.
10.1021/acsami.7b04216
  • Methylcellulose [3 wt%]
2 Bar25 25 Gauge Conical Constructs were submerged in A 40mg/ml CaCl2 bath.
10.1021/acsami.7b04216
  • Alginate [3 wt%]
  • Methylcellulose [3 wt%]
2 Bar25 25 Gauge Conical Constructs were submerged in A 40mg/ml CaCl2 bath.
10.1021/acsami.7b04216
  • Methylcellulose [9 wt%]
4 Bar25 25 Gauge Conical Constructs were submerged in A 40mg/ml CaCl2 bath.
10.1021/acsami.7b04216
  • Alginate [3 wt%]
  • Methylcellulose [9 wt%]
4 Bar25 25 Gauge Conical Constructs were submerged in A 40mg/ml CaCl2 bath. Furthermore, a trisodium citrate solution with L929 Fibroblasts were printed between each layer.
10.1021/acs.biomac.8b00696
  • Alginate Norbornene [2 wt%]
  • PEG dithiol 1500 [10 mol %]
30 kPa2510 25 Gauge Cylindrical L929 Fibroblasts (3) Bioink conjugated with Thiol-RGD
10.1021/acs.biomac.8b00696
  • Alginate Norbornene [2 wt%]
  • PEG 4-arm 5000 [10 mol %]
30 kPa255 - 10 25 Gauge Cylindrical ATDC5 Chondrocytes (3) Bioink conjugated with Thiol-RGD
10.1038/s41598-018-26407-3
  • Alginate [8 wt%]
  • Gelatin [20 wt%]
200 kPa106.5 340 µm Conical Primary Mouse Epidermal Stem Cells (1) PBS was used as a solvent with an ionic strength of .082 M. Construct crosslinked in 10% CaCl2
10.1038/s41598-019-55034-9
  • Alginate [3.25 wt%]
  • Gelatin [4 wt%]
35 kPa25 22 Gauge Cylindrical EGFR T790M Non Small Cell Lung Carcinoma PDX (10) 100mM CaCl2 was used to crosslink the scaffold post-processing.
10.1038/s41598-019-55034-9
  • Alginate [3.25 wt%]
  • Gelatin [4 wt%]
35 kPa25 22 Gauge Cylindrical AA0022 Lung Cancer Associated Fibroblasts (10) 100mM CaCl2 was used to crosslink the scaffold post-processing.
10.1038/s41598-019-55034-9
  • Alginate [3.5 wt%]
  • Gelatin [4 wt%]
60 kPa25 22 Gauge Cylindrical EGFR T790M Non Small Cell Lung Carcinoma PDX (10) 100mM CaCl2 was used to crosslink the scaffold post-processing.
10.1038/s41598-019-55034-9
  • Alginate [3.5 wt%]
  • Gelatin [4 wt%]
60 kPa25 22 Gauge Cylindrical AA0022 Lung Cancer Associated Fibroblasts (10) 100mM CaCl2 was used to crosslink the scaffold post-processing.
10.1038/s41598-019-55034-9
  • Alginate [3 wt%]
  • Gelatin [4 wt%]
20 kPa25 22 Gauge Cylindrical EGFR T790M Non Small Cell Lung Carcinoma PDX (10) 100mM CaCl2 was used to crosslink the scaffold post-processing.
10.1038/s41598-019-55034-9
  • Alginate [3 wt%]
  • Gelatin [4 wt%]
20 kPa25 22 Gauge Cylindrical AA0022 Lung Cancer Associated Fibroblasts (10) 100mM CaCl2 was used to crosslink the scaffold post-processing.
10.1038/s41598-019-55034-9
  • Alginate [3.75 wt%]
  • Gelatin [4 wt%]
90 kPa25 22 Gauge Cylindrical EGFR T790M Non Small Cell Lung Carcinoma PDX (10) 100mM CaCl2 was used to crosslink the scaffold post-processing.
10.1038/s41598-019-55034-9
  • Alginate [3.75 wt%]
  • Gelatin [4 wt%]
90 kPa25 22 Gauge Cylindrical AA0022 Lung Cancer Associated Fibroblasts (10) 100mM CaCl2 was used to crosslink the scaffold post-processing.
10.1038/s41598-019-55034-9
  • Alginate [7 wt%]
  • Gelatin [3 wt%]
115 kPa25 22 Gauge Cylindrical EGFR T790M Non Small Cell Lung Carcinoma PDX (10) 100mM CaCl2 was used to crosslink the scaffold post-processing.
10.1038/s41598-019-55034-9
  • Alginate [7 wt%]
  • Gelatin [3 wt%]
115 kPa25 22 Gauge Cylindrical AA0022 Lung Cancer Associated Fibroblasts (10) 100mM CaCl2 was used to crosslink the scaffold post-processing.
10.1038/s41598-019-55034-9
  • Alginate [6 wt%]
  • Gelatin [4 wt%]
145 kPa25 22 Gauge Cylindrical EGFR T790M Non Small Cell Lung Carcinoma PDX (10) 100mM CaCl2 was used to crosslink the scaffold post-processing.
10.1038/s41598-019-55034-9
  • Alginate [6 wt%]
  • Gelatin [4 wt%]
145 kPa25 22 Gauge Cylindrical AA0022 Lung Cancer Associated Fibroblasts (10) 100mM CaCl2 was used to crosslink the scaffold post-processing.
10.1038/s41598-019-55034-9
  • Alginate [4 wt%]
  • Gelatin [8 wt%]
250 kPa25 22 Gauge Cylindrical EGFR T790M Non Small Cell Lung Carcinoma PDX (10) 100mM CaCl2 was used to crosslink the scaffold post-processing.
10.1038/s41598-019-55034-9
  • Alginate [4 wt%]
  • Gelatin [8 wt%]
250 kPa25 22 Gauge Cylindrical AA0022 Lung Cancer Associated Fibroblasts (10) 100mM CaCl2 was used to crosslink the scaffold post-processing.
10.1021/acsbiomaterials.9b00167
  • Alginate Dialdehyde [6 wt%]
  • Gelatin [2 wt%]
0.47 Bar2625 27 Gauge Conical Printed into a 100mM CaCl2 bath coated with PEI.
10.1021/acsbiomaterials.9b00167
  • Alginate Dialdehyde [3 wt%]
  • Gelatin [2 wt%]
0.12 Bar2625 27 Gauge Conical RSC96 Neuronal Schwann Cells (1) Printed into a 100mM CaCl2 bath coated with PEI.
10.1021/acsbiomaterials.9b00167
  • Alginate Dialdehyde [2 wt%]
  • Gelatin [2 wt%]
0.1 Bar2625 27 Gauge Conical RSC96 Neuronal Schwann Cells (1) Printed into a 100mM CaCl2 bath coated with PEI.
10.1021/acsbiomaterials.9b00167
  • Alginate Dialdehyde [2 wt%]
  • Gelatin [3 wt%]
0.3 Bar2625 27 Gauge Conical RSC96 Neuronal Schwann Cells (1) Printed into a 100mM CaCl2 bath coated with PEI.
10.1021/acsbiomaterials.9b00167
  • Alginate Dialdehyde [2 wt%]
  • Gelatin [6 wt%]
2.15 Bar2625 27 Gauge Conical Printed into a 100mM CaCl2 bath coated with PEI.
10.1021/acsbiomaterials.9b00167
  • Alginate Dialdehyde [3.75 wt%]
  • Gelatin [3.75 wt%]
0.75 Bar2625 27 Gauge Conical Printed into a 100mM CaCl2 bath coated with PEI.
10.1088/1758-5090/aa90d7
  • Alginate [3.5 wt%]
1 Bar2525 21 Gauge Conical Human Chondrocytes (3) .2M CaCl2 was sprayed over the scaffold
10.1088/1758-5090/aa90d7
  • Alginate [3.5 wt%]
  • PLA Fibers [1 wt%]
1 Bar2525 21 Gauge Conical Human Chondrocytes (3) .2M CaCl2 was sprayed over the scaffold
10.1088/1758-5090/aa90d7
  • Alginate [2.5 wt%]
  • PLA Fibers [2 wt%]
1 Bar2525 21 Gauge Conical Human Chondrocytes (3) .2M CaCl2 was sprayed over the scaffold
10.1038/s41598-017-04691-9
  • Gelatin [7 wt%]
  • Alginate [3 wt%]
200 kPa255 25 Gauge Cylindrical MDA-MB-231 Epithelial Cells (1) Scaffolds were rinsed with 100mM CaCl2 solution.
10.1016/j.bprint.2019.e00045
  • Alginate [2 wt%]
30 kPa18 200 µm Conical Primary Rat Schwann Cells (0.2) Alginate was printed into a 50 mM CaCl2 bath for crosslinking
10.1016/j.bprint.2019.e00045
  • Alginate RGD/YIGSR [2 wt%]
30 kPa18 200 µm Conical Primary Rat Schwann Cells (0.2) Alginate was printed into a 50 mM CaCl2 bath for crosslinking
10.1016/j.bprint.2019.e00045
  • Alginate [2 wt%]
20 kPa6 - 12 200 µm Conical Primary Rat Schwann Cells (0.2) Alginate was printed into a 50 mM CaCl2 bath for crosslinking
10.1016/j.bprint.2019.e00045
  • Alginate RGD/YIGSR [2 wt%]
20 kPa6 - 12 200 µm Conical Primary Rat Schwann Cells (0.2) Alginate was printed into a 50 mM CaCl2 bath for crosslinking
10.1039/c9tb00669a
  • Alginate RGD [1 wt%]
  • Hyaluronic Acid [0.5 wt%]
  • Fibrinogen [10 mg/ml]
10 kPa234 - 9 200 µm Cylindrical Primary Rat Schwann Cells (1) Crosslinked with Calcium chloride (100 mM) and Thrombin (25 U/mL)
10.1039/c9tb00669a
  • Alginate RGD [1 wt%]
  • Hyaluronic Acid [0.5 wt%]
  • Fibrinogen [40 mg/ml]
30 kPa234 - 9 200 µm Cylindrical Primary Rat Schwann Cells (1) Crosslinked with Calcium chloride (100 mM) and Thrombin (25 U/mL)
10.1155/2020/3863428
  • Gelatin [20 wt%]
  • Alginate [1.25 wt%]
  • Cellulose Nanofibers [0.25 wt%]
253 22 Gauge Cylindrical Primary Rabbit Fibrochondrocytes (5) Samples crosslinked with 0.1% w/v CaCl2 for 1 min
10.1155/2020/3863428
  • Gelatin [20 wt%]
  • Alginate [1.25 wt%]
253 22 Gauge Cylindrical Samples crosslinked with 0.1% w/v CaCl2 for 1 min
10.1155/2020/3863428
  • Gelatin [10 wt%]
  • Alginate [1.25 wt%]
  • Cellulose Nanofibers [0.25 wt%]
203 22 Gauge Cylindrical Samples crosslinked with 0.1% w/v CaCl2 for 1 min
10.1155/2020/3863428
  • Gelatin [10 wt%]
  • Alginate [1.25 wt%]
203 22 Gauge Cylindrical Samples crosslinked with 0.1% w/v CaCl2 for 1 min
10.1089/ten.tea.2019.0237
  • PCL [90 wt%]
  • Hydroxyapatite [10 wt%]
1.5 Bar1108 700 µm Cylindrical PCL Mw = 140,00 Da
10.1089/ten.tea.2019.0237
  • PCL [80 wt%]
  • Hydroxyapatite [20 wt%]
2.5 Bar1209 700 µm Cylindrical PCL Mw = 140,00 Da
10.1089/ten.tea.2019.0237
  • PCL [70 wt%]
  • Hydroxyapatite [30 wt%]
3.5 Bar1309 700 µm Cylindrical PCL Mw = 140,00 Da
10.1016/j.matlet.2020.127382
  • Alginate [7 wt%]
  • Gelatin [4 wt%]
110 kPa - 130 kPa253 22 Gauge Conical 420mM CaCl2 was used to crosslink the constructs.
10.1016/j.matlet.2020.127382
  • Alginate [7 wt%]
  • Gelatin [4 wt%]
138 kPa - 207 kPa253 22 Gauge Conical 420mM CaCl2 was used to crosslink the constructs.
10.2217/3dp-2018-0017
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [15 wt%]
23 psi202 23 Gauge Cylindrical Primary Rat Cardiac Myocytes (1) Construct crosslinked with LAP (0.5 wt%, 7mW/cm2, 300s) post print
10.1016/j.msec.2019.110578
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [15 wt%]
2 Bar1510 27 Gauge Conical Primary Sheep Chondrocytes (10) GelMA was printed between PCL layers.
10.1016/j.msec.2019.110578
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [20 wt%]
2 Bar2010 27 Gauge Conical Primary Sheep Chondrocytes (10) GelMA was printed between PCL layers.
10.1089/3dp.2018.0175
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [5 wt%]
3 psi2512 23 Gauge Cylindrical HEK293 Kidney Cells (5) An agarose support slurry was used
https://ojs.cnr.ncsu.edu/index.php/BioRes/article/view/BioRes_14_4_9244_Feng_3D_Bioprinting_Molding_Technology_Tissue/7198
  • Gelatin [5 wt%]
  • Nanocellulose [10 wt%]
80 kPa2020 260 µm Conical
10.3390/pharmaceutics12060550
  • Alginate [6 wt%]
10 kPa376 20 Gauge Conical Alginate was crosslinked partially before printing.
10.3390/pharmaceutics12060550
  • Chitosan [1.2 wt%]
  • Genipin [1 wt%]
  • PEG [1.2 wt%]
25 kPa374 22 Gauge Conical Human Dermal Fibroblasts/ Primary Human Epidermal Keratinocytes Mix (1)
10.3390/app10030768
  • Alginate [3 wt%]
  • Gelatin [8 wt%]
1.8 Bar3710 400 µm Conical
10.1021/acsami.6b11669
  • Collagen [5 wt%]
110 kPa - 300 kPa1010 310 µm Cylindrical MG63 Osteoblast-like Cells (2) Genipin was used to crosslink the collagen post printing.
10.1021/acsami.6b11669
  • Collagen [5 wt%]
110 kPa - 300 kPa1010 310 µm Cylindrical Human Adipose-derived Stem Cells (2) Genipin was used to crosslink the collagen post printing.
10.1016/j.jmbbm.2018.01.034
  • Alginate [3 wt%]
0.2 Bar206 200 µm Conical Alginate was dispensed into 50mM CaCl2
10.1088/1758-5090-aa8854
  • Alginate [2.8 wt%]
  • Agarose [0.9 wt%]
  • Methylcellulose [3 wt%]
80 kPa - 100 kPa258 - 10 610 µm Conical Plant cells - Basil 1 g of concentrated biomass was mixed into 10 ml of hydrogel paste. Cr4osslinked with 0.1M CaCl2
10.1016/j.actbio.2019.02.038
  • Alginate Methacrylated [9 wt%]
138 kPa2510 210 µm Cylindrical Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells (2) Several other bioink combinations tested. RGD peptide was added at 50mg/ml.
10.1016/j.actbio.2019.02.038
  • Hyaluronic Acid Methacrylated [15 wt%]
552 kPa2510 210 µm Cylindrical Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells (2) Several other bioink combinations tested. RGD peptide was added at 50mg/ml.
10.1016/j.actbio.2019.02.038
  • Pluronic F127 [40 wt%]
414 kPa254 80 µm Cylindrical
10.1016/j.actbio.2019.02.038
  • Pluronic F127 [40 wt%]
414 kPa254 300 µm Cylindrical
10.1016/j.actbio.2019.02.038
  • Pluronic F127 [40 wt%]
414 kPa254 400 µm Cylindrical
10.1088/1758-5090/8/2/025020
  • PCL [100 wt%]
400 kPa652.5 300 µm Cylindrical Average MW of 10000 g mol−1
10.1088/1758-5090/8/2/025020
  • PCL [100 wt%]
800 kPa901.5 300 µm Cylindrical Average MW of 45000 g mol−1
10.1088/1758-5090/8/2/025020
  • PCL [100 wt%]
800 kPa1101 300 µm Cylindrical Average MW of 80000 g mol−1
10.1089/ten.tec.2015.0307
  • PCL [100 wt%]
800 kPa751 300 µm Cylindrical PCL Mw 48,000 -90,000.
10.1089/ten.tec.2015.0307
  • Alginate [2.5 wt%]
10 kPa1025 200 µm Conical Primary Embryonic Chick Chondrocytes (5.68) Each alginate layer was partiallly crosslinked with aerosolized CaCl2 (170mM) during print
10.1088/1758-5090/aaf44a
  • Alginate [2.5 wt%]
  • Hydroxyapatite [2 wt%]
0.3 Bar3714 - 17 250 µm Conical Primary Embryonic Chick Chondrocytes (1.57) The ink was printed into a crosslinking medium containing 100 mM CaCl2, 0.1% (w/v) PEI. HA was stabilized in bioink using sodium citrate.
10.1088/1758-5090/aaf44a
  • Alginate [2.5 wt%]
  • Hydroxyapatite [1 wt%]
0.3 Bar3715 - 17 250 µm Conical Primary Embryonic Chick Chondrocytes (1.57) The ink was printed into a crosslinking medium containing 100 mM CaCl2, 0.1% (w/v) PEI. HA was stabilized in bioink using sodium citrate.
10.1088/1758-5090/aacd30
  • Alginate [1 wt%]
  • Hyaluronic Acid [0.5 wt%]
  • Fibrinogen [40 mg/ml]
30 kPa229 200 µm Cylindrical Primary Rat Schwann Cells (1) Printed in a bath of 20 mM CaCl2 + 10 U/ml thrombin
http://ijb.whioce.com/index.php/int-j-bioprinting/article/view/02009
  • Chitosan [2.5 wt%]
  • Gelatin [5 wt%]
2.4 Bar2716.667 210 µm Cylindrical A polyelectrolyte complex was formed between the gelatin and chitosan
10.1021/acs.biomaterials.8b00804
  • Chitosan [4 wt%]
0.4 Bar - 0.7 Bar2010 - 20 580 µm Cylindrical Each layer was solidifed through the manually pipetting coagulant sollution 12wt% NaOH in 7/3 water/ethanol mixture.
10.1021/acs.biomaterials.8b00804
  • Chitosan [4 wt%]
  • Silk Particles [2 wt%]
0.4 Bar - 0.7 Bar2010 - 20 580 µm Cylindrical Each layer was solidifed through the manually pipetting coagulant sollution 12wt% NaOH in 7/3 water/ethanol mixture.
10.1021/acs.biomaterials.8b00804
  • Chitosan [4 wt%]
  • Silk Particles [4 wt%]
0.4 Bar - 0.7 Bar2010 - 20 580 µm Cylindrical Each layer was solidifed through the manually pipetting coagulant sollution 12wt% NaOH in 7/3 water/ethanol mixture.
10.1021/acs.biomaterials.8b00804
  • Chitosan [4 wt%]
  • Silk Particles [12 wt%]
0.4 Bar - 0.7 Bar2010 - 20 580 µm Cylindrical Each layer was solidifed through the manually pipetting coagulant sollution 12wt% NaOH in 7/3 water/ethanol mixture.
10.1002/slct.201902878
  • Gelatin [20 wt%]
  • Alginate [2 wt%]
  • Beta Tricalcium Phosphate [10 wt%]
4315 - 20 19 Gauge Cylindrical Immersed in 1M CaCl2 for an hour after printing. Bioink flow rate set between 3 ml/h to 5 ml/h
10.1002/slct.201902878
  • Gelatin [20 wt%]
  • Alginate [2 wt%]
  • Beta Tricalcium Phosphate [13 wt%]
4315 - 20 19 Gauge Cylindrical Immersed in 1M CaCl2 for an hour after printing. Bioink flow rate set between 3 ml/h to 5 ml/h
10.1002/slct.201902878
  • Gelatin [20 wt%]
  • Alginate [2 wt%]
  • Beta Tricalcium Phosphate [15 wt%]
4315 - 20 19 Gauge Cylindrical Immersed in 1M CaCl2 for an hour after printing. Bioink flow rate set between 3 ml/h to 5 ml/h
10.1021/acs.biomac.9b01204
  • Gelatin Norbornene [10 wt%]
N/A22.515 18 Gauge Conical NIH 3T3 Fibroblasts (2) The hydrogel was crosslinked with LAP (.1wt%, 5mW/cm2) concurrent with printing.
10.1021/acs.biomac.9b01204
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [10 wt%]
N/A22.515 18 Gauge Conical NIH 3T3 Fibroblasts (2) The hydrogel was crosslinked with LAP (.1wt%, 5mW/cm2) concurrent with printing.
10.1016/j.biomaterials.2013.09.078
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [10 wt%]
3 Bar27.57.5 30 Gauge Cylindrical VA-086 used as photo-initiator with an optimized UV dose of 1800 mJ/cm2
10.1016/j.biomaterials.2013.09.078
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [10 wt%]
3 Bar24.56.67 30 Gauge Cylindrical HEPG2 Liver Cells (1.5) VA-086 used as photo-initiator with an optimized UV dose of 1800 mJ/cm2
10.1016/j.biomaterials.2013.09.078
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [10 wt%]
0.5 Bar - 1 Bar24.510 27 Gauge Cylindrical HEPG2 Liver Cells (1.5) VA-086 used as photo-initiator with an optimized UV dose of 1800 mJ/cm2
10.1016/j.biomaterials.2013.09.078
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [15 wt%]
4 Bar28.59.16 27 Gauge Cylindrical VA-086 used as photo-initiator with an optimized UV dose of 1800 mJ/cm2
10.1016/j.biomaterials.2013.09.078
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [20 wt%]
4 Bar309.16 27 Gauge Cylindrical VA-086 used as photo-initiator with an optimized UV dose of 1800 mJ/cm2
10.1016/j.actbio.2014.09.023
  • Gelatin [15 wt%]
  • Silk Fibroin [8 wt%]
200 kPa - 250 kPa281 250 µm Cylindrical Primary Human Nasal Inferior Turbinate Tissue-derived (2.5) Post-printing crosslinking occurred through either the use of tyrosinase addition or sonication.
10.1016/j.actbio.2016.12.008
  • Fibrinogen [30 mg/ml]
  • Gelatin [35 mg/ml]
  • Hyaluronic Acid [3 mg/ml]
60 kPa181.67 - 8.34 300 µm Conical Primary Rabbit Bladder Urothelial Cells (10) The cell-laden hydrogel was printed into a urethra structure. Final crosslinking done with thrombin
10.1016/j.actbio.2016.12.008
  • Fibrinogen [30 mg/ml]
  • Gelatin [35 mg/ml]
  • Hyaluronic Acid [3 mg/ml]
60 kPa181.67 - 8.34 300 µm Conical Primary Rabbit Smooth Muscle Cells (10) The cell-laden hydrogel was printed into a urethra structure. Final crosslinking done with thrombin
10.1016/j.actbio.2016.12.008
  • PLCL [100 wt%]
550 kPa1601.67 - 8.34 200 µm Cylindrical PLCL LA:CL 70:30.
10.1016/j.actbio.2016.12.008
  • PLCL [50 wt%]
  • PCL [50 wt%]
760 kPa1501.67 - 8.34 200 µm Cylindrical PLCL LA:CL 70:30. PCL Mw 43000-50,000.
10.1016/j.actbio.2016.12.008
  • PCL [100 wt%]
760 kPa981.67 - 8.34 200 µm Cylindrical PCL Mw 43000-50,000.
10.1007/s10544-014-9915-8
  • Gelatin [5 wt%]
50 kPa245 30 Gauge Cylindrical Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (5) Gelatin crosslinked with microbial transglutaminase at 3U/mL
10.1007/s10544-014-9915-8
  • Gelatin [5 wt%]
50 kPa245 30 Gauge Cylindrical HEK293 Kidney Cells (5) Gelatin crosslinked with microbial transglutaminase at 3U/mL
10.1088/0960-1317/22/8/085014
  • Alginate [4 wt%]
kPa254.166667 200 µm Cylindrical MG63 Human Osteoblasts (1) Crosslinked with CaCl2 (100 mM)and naCl (145 mM). Alginate extruded by a piston at 0.01 mm/s.
10.1088/0960-1317/22/8/085014
  • Alginate [4 wt%]
kPa254.166667 200 µm Cylindrical Primary Human Nasal Septum Cartilage Chondrocytes (1) Crosslinked with CaCl2 (100 mM)and naCl (145 mM). Alginate extruded by a piston at 0.01 mm/s.
10.1088/0960-1317/22/8/085014
  • PCL [100 wt%]
400 kPa801.666667 200 µm Cylindrical PCL MW of 70,000 - 90,000.
10.1016/j.procir.2015.11.001
  • Pluronic F127 [25 wt%]
1.2 Bar37 200 µm Conical Balb 3T3 Mouse Fibroblasts (1)
10.1016/j.matdes.2018.09.040
  • Gellan Gum [1.5 wt%]
  • PEGDA [10 wt%]
3710 25 Gauge Cylindrical Cell Line MC3T3-E1 Osteoblasts (2) Constrcut crosslinked with I2959 (0.1 wt%, 50 mW/cm2, 180s) post print
10.1016/j.matdes.2018.09.040
  • Gellan Gum [1.5 wt%]
  • PEGDA [10 wt%]
3710 25 Gauge Cylindrical Murine Bone Marrow Stromal Cells (2) Constrcut crosslinked with I2959 (0.1 wt%, 50 mW/cm2, 180s) post print
10.1016/j.bprint.2020.e00085
  • Alginate [5 wt%]
24 psi2010 203 µm Conical CaCl2 was co sprayed during printing to crosslink alginate
10.1016/j.bprint.2020.e00085
  • Alginate [7 wt%]
44 psi2010 203 µm Conical CaCl2 was co sprayed during printing to crosslink alginate
10.1088/1758-5090/ab94d0
  • Alginate [1 wt%]
  • Cellulose Nanofibrillated [2 wt%]
2 psi - 10 psi251 500 µm Cylindrical PC-12 Cells (1) Cured post print by exposure to 50 mM CaCl2 for 2 mins
10.1088/1758-5090/ab94d0
  • Alginate [1 wt%]
  • Cellulose Nanofibrillated [2 wt%]
2 psi - 10 psi251 500 µm Cylindrical NIH 3T3 Fibroblasts (1) Cured post print by exposure to 50 mM CaCl2 for 2 mins
10.1088/1758-5090/ab94d0
  • Alginate [0.25 wt%]
  • Cellulose Nanofibrillated [2 wt%]
2 psi - 10 psi251 500 µm Cylindrical C57BL/6 Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells (1) Cured post print by exposure to 50 mM CaCl2 for 2 mins
10.1002/jbm.b.34602
  • Chitosan [4.5 wt%]
25 kPa3710 22 Gauge Cylindrical Human Fibroblasts (0.2)
10.1002/jbm.b.34602
  • Poly(gamma glutamic acid) [2 wt%]
5 kPa - 10 kPa3710 25 Gauge Cylindrical
10.1002/jbm.b.34602
  • Chitosan [6 wt%]
40 kPa3710 22 Gauge Cylindrical Human Fibroblasts (0.2)
10.1088/1748-605X/ab3c74
  • Alginate [0.8 wt%]
  • Gelatin [4.1 wt%]
  • Glycerol [10 %]
40 kPa - 60 kPa202 27 Gauge Cylindrical Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells (5) The ink was cooled to 0°C prior to printing. Scaffolds were crosslinked with 2% (w/v) CaCl2 solution for 10 min
10.1088/1748-605X/ab3c74
  • Alginate [1.3 wt%]
  • Gelatin [4.1 wt%]
  • Glycerol [10 %]
40 kPa - 60 kPa202 27 Gauge Cylindrical Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells (5) The ink was cooled to 0°C prior to printing. Scaffolds were crosslinked with 2% (w/v) CaCl2 solution for 10 min
10.1088/1748-605X/ab3c74
  • Alginate [1.8 wt%]
  • Gelatin [4.1 wt%]
  • Glycerol [10 %]
40 kPa - 60 kPa202 27 Gauge Cylindrical Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells (5) The ink was cooled to 0°C prior to printing. Scaffolds were crosslinked with 2% (w/v) CaCl2 solution for 10 min
10.1088/1748-605X/ab3c74
  • Alginate [2.3 wt%]
  • Gelatin [4.1 wt%]
  • Glycerol [10 %]
40 kPa - 60 kPa202 27 Gauge Cylindrical Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells (5) The ink was cooled to 0°C prior to printing. Scaffolds were crosslinked with 2% (w/v) CaCl2 solution for 10 min
10.3390/cells8080830
  • Alginate [6 wt%]
  • Gelatin [4 wt%]
55 kPa2510 410 µm Conical Cell Line SH-SY5Y (0.05) Alginate crosslinked in 2% CaCl2 bath post-print
10.3390/cells8080830
  • Alginate [6 wt%]
  • Gelatin [4 wt%]
45 kPa2510 410 µm Conical Cell Line SH-SY5Y (0.05) Alginate crosslinked in 2% CaCl2 bath post-print
10.3390/cells8080830
  • Alginate [6 wt%]
  • Gelatin [4 wt%]
55 kPa2510 410 µm Conical Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (2) Alginate crosslinked in 2% CaCl2 bath post-print
10.3390/cells8080830
  • Alginate [4 wt%]
  • Gelatin [4 wt%]
55 kPa2510 410 µm Conical Neural Stem Cells iPSC Differentiated (2) Alginate crosslinked in 2% CaCl2 bath post-print
10.3390/gels5030034
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [10 wt%]
50 kPa - 57 kPa251.25 250 µm Conical The GelMA post-printing was crosslinked with only UV, or mTGase after UV crosslinking.
10.1088/1758-5090/ab0b7c
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [5 wt%]
  • Hydroxyapatite [0.5 wt%]
  • Gelatin [5 wt%]
125 kPa235 200 µm Conical Primary Human Adipose-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (5) Crosslinked with LAP
10.1016/j.actbio.2014.09.033
  • Hyaluronic Acid pNIPAAM [15 wt%]
  • Hyaluronic Acid Methacrylated [2 wt%]
1.5 Bar238.333 300 µm Cylindrical Primary Bovine Chondrocytes (6)
10.1088/1758-5090/ab02c9
  • Pluronic F127 Thiolated [12 wt%]
  • Hyaluronic Acid Dopamine Conjugated [1 wt%]
  • Gelatin Dopamine Conjugated [2 wt%]
2 psi - 10 psi371 27 Gauge Conical S16Y Schwann Cells (3.2) Crosslinking was done post-processing
10.1088/1758-5090/ab02c9
  • Pluronic F127 Thiolated [12 wt%]
  • Hyaluronic Acid Dopamine Conjugated [1 wt%]
  • Gelatin Methacrylated Dopamine Conjugated [5 wt%]
2 psi - 10 psi371 27 Gauge Conical S16Y Schwann Cells (3.2) Crosslinking was done post-processing
10.1016/j.jmbbm.2017.09.031
  • Hyaluronic Acid [2 wt%]
  • Methylcellulose [5 wt%]
160 kPa - 175 kPa253 23 Gauge Cylindrical Mesenchymal Stem cells were encapsulated into the hydrogel, however cell concentration was not stated.
10.1016/j.jmbbm.2017.09.031
  • Hyaluronic Acid [2 wt%]
  • Methylcellulose [6 wt%]
160 kPa - 175 kPa253 23 Gauge Cylindrical Mesenchymal Stem cells were encapsulated into the hydrogel, however cell concentration was not stated.
10.1016/j.jmbbm.2017.09.031
  • Hyaluronic Acid [2 wt%]
  • Methylcellulose [7 wt%]
160 kPa - 175 kPa253 23 Gauge Cylindrical Mesenchymal Stem cells were encapsulated into the hydrogel, however cell concentration was not stated.
10.1016/j.jmbbm.2017.09.031
  • Hyaluronic Acid [2 wt%]
  • Methylcellulose [9 wt%]
160 kPa - 175 kPa253 23 Gauge Cylindrical Mesenchymal Stem cells were encapsulated into the hydrogel, however cell concentration was not stated.
10.1016/j.bprint.2017.09.001
  • Alginate [7 wt%]
  • Gelatin [8 wt%]
100 kPa373 30 Gauge Cylindrical The alginate/gelatin composite was optimized.
10.1088/1758-5090/ab56f9
  • Gelatin [15 wt%]
2.4 Bar3564 25 Gauge Cylindrical Crosslinking occurred post processing.
10.1016/j.actbio.2019.01.018
  • Alginate [10 wt%]
20 kPa251 21 Gauge Cylindrical Alginate was used as sacrifical template. Likewise, 100mM CaCl2 was pippetted on the printed filament and allowed to crosslink for 5 minutes.
10.1088/1748-605X/aa7692
  • Chitosan [6 wt%]
2 - 23 260 µm Cylindrical Chitosan was frozen prior to printing and then immersed into a coagulation bath.
10.1088/1748-605X/aa7692
  • Chitosan Raffinose Modified [6 wt%]
2 - 23 260 µm Cylindrical Chitosan was frozen prior to printing and then immersed into a coagulation bath.
10.1088/1748-605X/aa7692
  • PLA [100 wt%]
1802 350 µm Cylindrical
10.1038/s41467-020-16192
  • Hyaluronic Acid Methacrylated [2 wt%]
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [10 wt%]
  • [.]
80 kPa2528 22 Gauge Cylindrical Poly-L-lysine and Heparin were coated on the surface of the 3D printed hydrogel scaffold. Crosslinking occurred post-proecsssing.
10.7150/thno.44270
  • PCL [100 wt%]
80 kPa1307 300 µm Cylindrical PCL Mol Wt = 80,000. PCL was immersed in silk fibroin solution and irradiated with gamma rays.
10.1016/j.biomaterials.2020.119838
  • PCL [100 wt%]
4 Bar1801 22 Gauge Cylindrical PCL MW = 80,000
10.1016/j.compscitech.2020.108069
  • PCL [100 wt%]
6 Bar1300.6 400 µm Cylindrical PCL MW = 50,000.
10.1016/j.compscitech.2020.108069
  • PCL [90 wt%]
  • Hydroxyapatite [10 wt%]
6.2 Bar1300.5 400 µm Cylindrical PCL MW = 50,000
10.1016/j.compscitech.2020.108069
  • PCL [90 wt%]
  • Hydroxyapatite [7.54 wt%]
  • Strontium [2.46 wt%]
6.2 Bar1300.6 400 µm Cylindrical PCL MW = 50,000. Strontium was added to the HA powder
10.1016/j.compscitech.2020.108069
  • PCL [80 wt%]
  • Hydroxyapatite [20 wt%]
6.4 Bar1400.5 400 µm Cylindrical PCL MW = 50,000
10.1016/j.compscitech.2020.108069
  • PCL [80 wt%]
  • Hydroxyapatite [17.54 wt%]
  • Strontium [2.46 wt%]
6.4 Bar1400.6 400 µm Cylindrical PCL MW = 50,000. Strontium was added to the HA powder
10.1016/j.matlet.2019.126893
  • Alginate [2.5 wt%]
  • PLA Fibers [2 wt%]
1 Bar2525 21 Gauge Cylindrical After printing .2M CaCl2 was sprayed onto the hydrogel
10.1016/j.matlet.2019.126893
  • Alginate [4 wt%]
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [6 wt%]
  • Beta Tricalcium Phosphate [0.5 wt%]
363.9 25 Gauge Cylindrical 0.19M CaCl2 was used as sheath during coaxial printing. Bioink extrusion was at 5.1 uL/min
10.1016/j.matlet.2019.126893
  • PCL [100 wt%]
6 Bar1151 23 Gauge Cylindrical PCL MW = 80,000
10.1088/2057-1976/ab54a7
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [10 wt%]
  • Hyaluronic Acid Methacrylated [2 wt%]
4 Bar258 200 µm Bone Marrow-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (1)
10.1088/2057-1976/ab54a7
  • PCL [100 wt%]
4.8 Bar1651.4 200 µm Cylindrical PCL MW = 45,000
10.1088/2057-1976/ab54a7
  • PCL [100 wt%]
4.8 Bar1553.5 300 µm Cylindrical PCL MW = 45,000
10.1088/2057-1976/ab54a7
  • Pluronic F127 [wt%]
4.2 Bar306 200 µm Cylindrical
10.1088/2057-1976/ab54a7
  • PCL [100 wt%]
4.8 Bar15513 400 µm Cylindrical PCL MW = 45,000
10.1102/jbm.b.34542
  • PCL [100 wt%]
500 kPa1300.7 400 µm Cylindrical PCL MN = 80,000
10.1102/jbm.b.34542
  • PCL [80 wt%]
  • Beta Tricalcium Phosphate [20 wt%]
500 kPa1600.4 400 µm Cylindrical PCL MN = 80,000
10.3390/mi11010031
  • PCL [100 wt%]
700 kPa804 - 6 500 µm Cylindrical PCL MW = 55,000
10.2217/3dp-2016-0011
  • PCL [100 wt%]
5 Bar1105 22 Gauge Cylindrical Average MN 45,000
10.3892/mmr.2018.9076
  • PCL [10 wt%]
  • PLGA [90 wt%]
650 kPa1351.667 27 Gauge Cylindrical PCL MW = 50,000; PLGA MW = 50,000 - 75,000 with a LA:GA of 50:50
10.3892/mmr.2018.9076
  • PCL [50 wt%]
  • PLGA [50 wt%]
650 kPa1351.667 27 Gauge Cylindrical PCL MW = 50,000; PLGA MW = 50,000 - 75,000 with a LA:GA of 50:50
10.3892/mmr.2018.9076
  • PCL [90 wt%]
  • PLGA [10 wt%]
650 kPa1351.667 27 Gauge Cylindrical PCL MW = 50,000; PLGA MW = 50,000 - 75,000 with a LA:GA of 50:50
10.3390/ma11061006
  • PCL [100 wt%]
6 Bar1302.5 PCL consists of blend of PCL10 (10kDa) and PCL80 (80kDa) at a ratio of 40:60
10.3390/ma11061006
  • PVA [6 wt%]
3.5 Bar252 1ml of Acrylic acid was added to the solution and subsequently 100 mg N,N Methylenebisacrylamide was added.
10.1016/j.acthis.2018.02.010
  • PCL [100 wt%]
6 Bar1302.3 700 µm Cylindrical PCL MN = 50,000
10.1016/j.actbio.2017.09.031
  • PCL [66.6666 wt%]
  • Calcium Polyphosphate Microparticles [33.3333 wt%]
7.8 Bar1003 400 µm Cylindrical PCL MW = 50,000
10.1016/j.actbio.2017.09.031
  • PCL [100 wt%]
8 Bar1001 400 µm Cylindrical PCL MW = 50,000
10.1002/jbm.b.33994
  • PCL [90 wt%]
  • Hydroxyapatite [10 wt%]
3 Bar - 3.5 Bar1201.8 - 2.2 22 Gauge Cylindrical PCL MW = 65,000
10.1016/j.bprint.2017.08.001
  • PCL [100 wt%]
6 Bar1101.4 24 Gauge Cylindrical 50-43 kDA PCL
10.3390/ma10070831
  • PCL [100 wt%]
575 kPa - 625 kPa1001.333333 200 µm Cylindrical PCL MW = 50kDa. The paper reports that the PCL was dispensed thorugh a steel nozzle at temperature > 100 °C.
10.1039/c7ra04372d
  • Hyaluronic Acid Methacrylated [1 wt%]
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [4 wt%]
  • Hyaluronic Acid [3 wt%]
25 22 Gauge Cylindrical Primary Porcine Stromal Vascular Fraction Cells (4) Construct crosslinked for 40s after print
10.1039/c7ra04372d
  • PCL [90 wt%]
  • Hydroxyapatite [10 wt%]
3 Bar - 3.5 Bar1201.8 - 2.2 22 Gauge Cylindrical PCL MW = 65,000
10.1016/j.bprint.2017.04.003
  • Silicone [100 wt%]
5 Bar86.2 200 µm Cylindrical
10.1016/j.bprint.2017.04.003
  • PCL [100 wt%]
5.6 Bar804 200 µm Cylindrical PCL MW = 14,000
10.1016/j.msec.2017.05.003
  • PCL [95 wt%]
  • Nukbone [5 wt%]
0.7 Bar - 1 Bar900.5 - 0.7 800 µm Cylindrical Nukbone is a commercially available bovine bone filling. PCL MW = 37,000.
10.1016/j.msec.2017.05.003
  • PCL [95 wt%]
  • Hydroxyapatite [5 wt%]
0.7 Bar - 1 Bar900.5 - 0.7 800 µm Cylindrical PCL MW = 37,000.
10.1016/j.msec.2017.05.003
  • PCL [90 wt%]
  • Nukbone [10 wt%]
0.7 Bar - 1 Bar900.5 - 0.7 800 µm Cylindrical Nukbone is a commercially available bovine bone filling. PCL MW = 37,000.
10.1016/j.msec.2017.05.003
  • PCL [90 wt%]
  • Hydroxyapatite [10 wt%]
0.7 Bar - 1 Bar900.5 - 0.7 800 µm Cylindrical PCL MW = 37,000.
10.1016/j.msec.2017.05.003
  • PCL [80 wt%]
  • Nukbone [20 wt%]
0.7 Bar - 1 Bar900.5 - 0.7 800 µm Cylindrical Nukbone is a commercially available bovine bone filling. PCL MW = 37,000.
10.1016/j.msec.2017.05.003
  • PCL [80 wt%]
  • Hydroxyapatite [20 wt%]
0.7 Bar - 1 Bar900.5 - 0.7 800 µm Cylindrical PCL MW = 37,000.
10.1108/rpj.03-2016-0035
  • PCL [100 wt%]
500 kPa1800.4 400 µm Cylindrical PCL Mol Number = 80,000
10.1108/rpj.03-2016-0035
  • PCL [100 wt%]
500 kPa1800.4 700 µm Cylindrical PCL Mol Number = 80,000
10.1089/ten.tec.2016.0368
  • PCL [100 wt%]
80 kPa851 300 µm Cylindrical PCL Mol Wt ~ 45,000.
10.1089/ten.tec.2016.0368
  • Alginate [2.5 wt%]
30 kPa1025 200 µm Conical ATDC5 Chondrocytes (8) Alginate crosslinked with a nebulizer containing 170 mM CaCl2
10.1016/j.jmbbm.2016.03.024
  • PCL [100 wt%]
350 kPa1001.2 600 µm Cylindrical PCL Mol Wt = 43,000 - 50,000
10.1089/3dp.2014.0025
  • PCL [100 wt%]
350 kPa80 - 1001.2 300 µm Cylindrical PCL Mol Wt = 43,000 - 50,000
10.1089/3dp.2014.0025
  • PCL [100 wt%]
350 kPa80 - 901.2 400 µm Cylindrical PCL Mol Wt = 43,000 - 50,000
10.1115/1.4031174
  • PCL [100 wt%]
500 kPa1201.4 300 µm Cylindrical PCL Mol Wt - 43,500 - 50,000 kDa. Alginate microspheres were delivered into the PCL scaffold
10.1002/adfm.201908349
  • Gelatin [7.5 wt%]
0.7 Bar - 1.1 Bar26 - 273 - 6 25 Gauge Cylindrical Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (6) 7.5wt% Gelatin was used as a templating bioink. While the other bioinks were used as matrix bioinks in void-free 3D printing. The matrix bioink/templating bioink structure was irradiated using ultraviolet light, then incubated at 37°C to liquify the templating bioink.
10.1002/adfm.201908349
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [7.5 wt%]
0.7 Bar - 1.1 Bar22 - 233 - 6 25 Gauge Cylindrical
10.1002/adfm.201908349
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [5 wt%]
0.7 Bar - 1.1 Bar19 - 203 - 6 25 Gauge Cylindrical
10.1002/adfm.201908349
  • Hyaluronic Acid Methacrylated [5 wt%]
0.7 Bar - 1.1 Bar243 - 6 25 Gauge Cylindrical
10.1002/adfm.201908349
  • Hyaluronic Acid Norbornene [5 wt%]
0.7 Bar - 1.1 Bar243 - 6 25 Gauge Cylindrical
10.1002/apj.2360
  • Beta Tricalcium Phosphate [77 wt%]
  • Hydroxyapatite [19.2 wt%]
  • Tripolyphosphate [3.2 wt%]
  • Carboxymethyl Cellulose [0.04 wt%]
2 Bar224
10.1002/apj.2360
  • Gelatin [8 wt%]
  • Elastin [2 wt%]
  • Hyaluronic Acid [0.5 wt%]
2 Bar3115
10.1016/j.joen.2019.03.004
  • Gelatin [20 wt%]
  • Alginate [4 wt%]
20 kPa372 400 µm Cylindrical 5% CaCl2 and 1% Glutaraldehyde was used for crosslinking at 10 and 30 minutes respectively.
10.1016/j.jmbbm.2019.02.014
  • Alginate [3 wt%]
0.3 Bar2014 200 µm Cylindrical Primary Rat Schwann Cells (0.5) Crosslinking with CaCl2 was per layer
10.1016/j.jmbbm.2019.02.014
  • Alginate [1.5 wt%]
0.1 Bar2026 200 µm Cylindrical Primary Rat Schwann Cells (0.5) Crosslinking with CaCl2 was per layer
10.1016/j.jmbbm.2019.02.014
  • Gelatin [50 wt%]
0.8 Bar5016 24 Gauge Cylindrical Alginate was impregnated into the gelatin framework. After impregnation the gelatin was removed through an incubation process.
10.1088/1361-6560/aabd1f
  • Gelatin [10 wt%]
0.4 Bar7030 Conical 50% of microbubbles by gelatin weight was added to the hydrogel
10.1038/ncomms15261
  • Gelatin [10 wt%]
1.8 Bar - 4.5 Bar3010 100 µm Cylindrical
10.1016/j.matlet.2018.01.032
  • Gelatin [15 wt%]
0.6 Bar3715 250 µm Cylindrical Scaffolds were crosslinked with 12mg/ml EDC and 1.5mg/ml NHS for 4 Hours.
10.1371/journal.pone.0157214
  • Alginate [8 wt%]
  • Gelatin [2 wt%]
2 Bar - 3 Bar35 - 3710 250 µm Cylindrical Primary Human Adipose Derived Stem Cells (3)
10.1016/j.jmst.2016.01.007
  • Alginate [40 mg/mL]
  • Gelatin [200 mg/ml]
0.2 Bar372 400 µm Cylindrical Scaffolds were first immersed into the CaCl2 solution, and then glutaraldehyde 1wt% for 30 minutes.
10.1002/adhm.201600095
  • Alginate [5 wt%]
  • Chitosan Carboxymethyl [5 wt%]
  • Agarose [1.5 wt%]
1.5 Bar - 2 Bar15 200 µm Cylindrical Human Neural Stem Cells (5) CaCl2 crosslinking occurred post processing.
10.3390/app8091422
  • Alginate [3 wt%]
0.2 Bar18 - 208 200 µm Conical Crosslinked for a sufficient time to allow Ca2+ ions to penetrate and crosslink the whole structure.
10.1002/jbm.a.36333
  • Alginate [200 mg/mL]
  • Silica Gel [200 mg/ml]
0.5 Bar378 410 µm Cylindrical Dispensed into a PEI solution - 40 mL of PEI (50% w/v in water) to 100 mL of ethanol.
10.3390/jfb8040048
  • Alginate [2 wt%]
0.1 Bar2514 200 µm Conical Printed into CaCl2 and poly(ethyleneimine) solution
10.1021/acsbiomaterials.6b00258
  • Alginate [2 wt%]
0.1 Bar257.5 200 µm Conical Primary Chick Chondrocytes (5) Printed into (50mM CaCl2 and .1wt% poly(ethyleneime) solution.
10.1021/acsbiomaterials.6b00258
  • Alginate [2 wt%]
0.1 Bar256.5 200 µm Conical Primary Chick Chondrocytes (5) Printed into (100mM CaCl2 and .1wt% poly(ethyleneime) solution.
10.1021/acsbiomaterials.6b00258
  • Alginate [2 wt%]
0.1 Bar255.5 200 µm Conical Primary Chick Chondrocytes (5) Printed into (200mM CaCl2 and .1wt% poly(ethyleneime) solution.
10.1089/ten.tec/2017.0346
  • Alginate [2.5 wt%]
  • Carbon Nanotubes [0.625 wt%]
0.1 Bar228 - 10 250 µm Conical 25 µg of carbon nanotubes/mg of Alginate was added to the hydrogel. CaCl2 and PEI were used to crosslink the alginate.
10.1089/ten.tec/2017.0346
  • Alginate [2.5 wt%]
0.1 Bar228 - 10 250 µm Conical
10.1089/ten.tec/2017.0346
  • Collagen Methacrylated [2.34 wt%]
  • Carbon Nanotubes [0.117 wt%]
1525 - 32 200 µm Conical Human Coronary Artery Endothelial Cells (1) 5 µg carbon nanotubes/mg of Methacrylated collagen was added to the hydrogel. The hydrogel was crosslinked with ultraviolet light for 45 seconds
10.1089/ten.tec/2017.0346
  • Collagen Methacrylated [2.34 wt%]
1525 - 32 200 µm Conical Human Coronary Artery Endothelial Cells (1) The hydrogel was crosslinked with ultraviolet light for 45 seconds
10.1021/acs.biomaterials.6b00196
  • Alginate [2.5 wt%]
0.2 Bar3715 18 Gauge Cylindrical Human Adipose Stem Cells (1.375) Crosslinked post-print with CaCl2
10.1021/acsbiomaterials.6b00196
  • Alginate [2.5 wt%]
  • PLA Nanofibers [0.5 wt%]
0.2 Bar375 18 Gauge Cylindrical Human Adipose Stem Cells (1.375) Crosslinked post-print with CaCl2
10.1089/3dp.2014.0006
  • Alginate [2.5 wt%]
  • Hyaluronic Acid [0.25 wt%]
1.2 Bar4 100 µm Primary Rat Schwann Cells (5.2) The hydrogel was printed into a 100mM CaCl2, PEI, and PVA solution for varying lengths of time.
10.1016/j.biomaterials.2014.07.002
  • Alginate [5 wt%]
  • Gelatin [5 wt%]
0.9 Bar3026 410 µm Cylindrical Human Osteogenic Sarcoma Cells (0.5) Dispensed into a solution consisting of 0.4% CaCl2 and polyphosphate at a ratio of 2:1.
https://proceedings.cmbes.ca/index.php/proceedings/article/view/770
  • Alginate [3 wt%]
0.1 Bar258 200 µm Conical RSC96 Neuronal Schwann Cells (0.78) Dispensed into a solution consisting of 50mMCaCl2, PEI, and Glycerol.
10.1021/acs.biomac.9b01112
  • PLLA [100 wt%]
5 Bar - 8.5 Bar2204 - 45 400 µm Cylindrical PLLA MW = 145 kDa. Polymer degradation and MW reduction occurred at high temperatures needed to print.
10.1021/acs.biomac.9b01112
  • PCLA [100 wt%]
7 Bar - 8.5 Bar2052 - 20 400 µm Cylindrical PCLA MW = 133 kDaPolymer degradation and MW reduction occurred at high temperatures needed to print.
10.1021/acs.biomac.9b01112
  • PLGA [100 wt%]
5 Bar - 8.5 Bar2005 - 19 400 µm Cylindrical PLGA MW = 142 kDa. Polymer degradation and MW reduction occurred at high temperatures needed to print.
10.1021/acs.biomac.9b01112
  • PDLGA [100 wt%]
7 Bar - 8.5 Bar2006 - 14 400 µm Cylindrical PDLGA MW = 98 kDa. Polymer degradation and MW reduction occurred at high temperatures needed to print.
10.1016/j.jbiotec.2018.08.019
  • PLA [75 wt%]
  • Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) [25 wt%]
5 Bar180 - 2303 600 µm Cylindrical The study examined the impact of material preparation conditions (drying) prior to 3D printing.
10.1021/acsbiomaterials.8b01277
  • Hyaluronic Acid Methacrylated [1 wt%]
  • Hyaluronic Acid [3 wt%]
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [4 wt%]
  • Gelatin [2 wt%]
3 Bar - 3.5 Bar253 - 3.5 22 Gauge Cylindrical Primary Human Adipose-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (1) Whole construcst exposed to UV light for 45 seconds.
10.1021/acsbiomaterials.8b01277
  • Hyaluronic Acid Methacrylated [1.5 wt%]
  • Hyaluronic Acid [3 wt%]
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [1.5 wt%]
  • Gelatin [3 wt%]
3 Bar - 3.5 Bar251.8 - 2.2 22 Gauge Cylindrical 21 PT Breast Cancer Cells (5) Whole construcst exposed to UV light for 45 seconds.
10.1371/journal.pone.0216776
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [5 wt%]
  • Gellan Gum [0.5 wt%]
0.8 Bar24 - 261.67 27 Gauge Cylindrical Constructs were UV-cured during print at 400mm/min UV scan speed per layer
10.1371/journal.pone.0216776
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [7.5 wt%]
  • Gellan Gum [0.1 wt%]
24 - 261.67 27 Gauge Cylindrical Constructs were UV-cured during print at 400mm/min UV scan speed per layer
10.1371/journal.pone.0216776
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [10 wt%]
  • Gellan Gum [0.1 wt%]
24 - 261.67 27 Gauge Cylindrical Constructs were UV-cured during print at 400mm/min UV scan speed per layer
10.1371/journal.pone.0216776
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [10 wt%]
  • Gellan Gum [0.2 wt%]
2 Bar24 - 261.67 27 Gauge Cylindrical Constructs were UV-cured during print at 400mm/min UV scan speed per layer
10.1371/journal.pone.0216776
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [7.5 wt%]
  • Gellan Gum [0.5 wt%]
1.5 Bar24 - 261.67 27 Gauge Cylindrical C2C12 Myoblasts (4) Constructs were UV-cured during print at 400mm/min UV scan speed per layer
10.1371/journal.pone.0216776
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [7.5 wt%]
  • Gellan Gum [0.2 wt%]
1.2 Bar24 - 261.67 27 Gauge Cylindrical C2C12 Myoblasts (4) Constructs were UV-cured during print at 400mm/min UV scan speed per layer
10.1088/1758-5090/ab063f
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [10 wt%]
1 Bar - 2 Bar25 - 26 27 Gauge Cylindrical C2C12 Myoblasts (6) UV crosslinking occurred post printing.
10.1088/1758-5090/8/3/035013
  • PCL [100 wt%]
700 kPa802.5 - 3.3333 250 µm Conical PCL Mol Wt = 65,000
10.1088/1758-5090/8/3/035013
  • PLGA [100 wt%]
600 kPa1404.166667 250 µm Conical PLGA Mol Wt = 50,000 - 75,000
10.1088/1758-5090/8/3/035013
  • PLA [100 wt%]
700 kPa1907.5 300 µm Conical PLA Mol Wt. = 10,000. PCL was used as a protectivve layer for the cell laden hydrogel when printing the PLGA or PLA.
10.1088/1758-5090/8/3/035013
  • Alginate [4 wt%]
30 kPa181.3333 21 Gauge Conical NIH 3T3 Fibroblasts (1) CaCl2 Crosslinking occurred post printing.
10.1016/jbioactmat.2020.04.017
  • PLGA [60 wt%]
1.5 Bar - 2 Bar8 25 Gauge Cylindrical PLGA had an LA/GA=50/50. It was dissolved in Formic acid for printing
10.1016/jbioactmat.2020.04.017
  • Pluronic F127 [40 wt%]
1.5 Bar - 2 Bar11 25 Gauge Cylindrical
10.1016/j.jiec.2020.04.021
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [20 wt%]
  • PLGA Nanofibers [1 wt%]
10 kPa353 400 µm Cylindrical NIH 3T3 Fibroblasts (3.3333) PLGA Nanofibers were fabricated via electrospinning. Crosslinking occurred post-printing.
10.1088/1758-5082/5/3/035001
  • Gelatin [20 wt%]
  • Alginate [2 wt%]
10 kPa - 20 kPa377.5 830 µm Conical Multiple parameters were optimized. Hydrogel crosslinked post-print with 2% w/v CaCl2
10.1088/1758-5082/5/3/035001
  • PEGDA [20 wt%]
  • Alginate [10 wt%]
7 kPa - 13 kPa7.5 610 µm Conical Multiple parameters were optimized. PEGDA was UV crosslinked with 1% Irgacure 2959
10.1016/j.bprint.2018.e00038
  • PLGA [66 wt%]
4 Bar451 400 µm Cylindrical PLGA(85:15 LA:GA) was printed in a DMSO solution with various proteins.
10.1088/1758-5090/7/4/045002
  • Gelatin [5 wt%]
  • Alginate [1 wt%]
200.03 25 Gauge Cylindrical A549 Human Epithelial Cells (1) Crosslinking occurred post-printing
10.1088/1758-5090/7/4/045002
  • Gelatin [7 wt%]
  • Alginate [1 wt%]
190.03 25 Gauge Cylindrical A549 Human Epithelial Cells (1) Crosslinking occurred post-printing
10.1016/j.actbio.2020.07.016
  • Gelatin [4.1 wt%]
  • Alginate [0.8 wt%]
30 kPa - 40 kPa102 27 Gauge Conical Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells (5) Crosslinking occurred post-printing
10.1016/j.actbio.2020.07.016
  • Gelatin [4.1 wt%]
  • Alginate [1.8 wt%]
30 kPa - 40 kPa102 27 Gauge Conical Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells (5) Crosslinking occurred post-printing
10.1088/1758-5090/aa6265
  • pHPMA-lac-PEG Methacrylated [19.5 wt%]
  • Hyaluronic Acid Methacrylated [0.5 wt%]
100 kPa - 130 kPa3740 Methacrylated pHPMA-lac-PEG is a triblock coplymer composed of two poly[N-(2-hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide mono/dilactate]The triblock polymer has 10% methacrylation, and PEG block with 10MW. The PCL and the hydrogel were coprinted. Valve opening time varied from .0003 to .0013.
10.1088/1758-5090/aa6265
  • PCL [100 wt%]
300 kPa801 560 µm Conical After printing the entire construct was irradiated for an additional 69 seconds.
10.1088/1758-5090/8/4/045002
  • Agarose [2 wt%]
200 kPa37 Cylindrical Bone Marrow Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (20)
10.1088/1758-5090/8/4/045002
  • Alginate [3.5 wt%]
200 kPa21 Cylindrical Bone Marrow Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (20) Additional post crosslinking occurred with 50mM CaCl2 bath for 15 minutes.
10.1088/1758-5090/8/4/045002
  • BioINK [100 wt%]
140 kPa21 Cylindrical Bone Marrow Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (20) BioINK is a commercially available specialty ink from RegenHU.ink . It is PEGMA based, and for crosslinking UV light was used for 15 minutes after printing.
10.1088/1758-5090/8/4/045002
  • Gelatin [10 wt%]
60 kPa28 Cylindrical Bone Marrow Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (20) UV light was used for 15 minutes for post crosslinking.
10.1088/1758-5090/8/4/045002
  • PCL [100 wt%]
450 kPa70 25 Gauge Cylindrical PCL molecular weight 45,000
10.1088/1758-5090/aa8cb7
  • Poly(glycidol) Allyl Functionalized [5 wt%]
  • Hyaluronic Acid Thiolated [5 wt%]
  • Hyaluronic Acid [1 wt%]
1 Bar 330 µm Cylindrical Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells (6) P(AGE-co-G) stands for poly(allyl glycidyl ether-co-glycidyl).
10.1088/1758-5090/aa8cb7
  • PCL [100 wt%]
3 Bar935 250 µm Cylindrical
10.1007/s10856-020-06374-w
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [10 wt%]
50 kPa235 25 Gauge Conical Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (4) Crosslinking occurred post printing. Note: Paper reports that the printhead was at a temperature of 19C, but the cartridge heater was set to 23C.
10.1007/s10856-019-6335-6
  • PCL [100 wt%]
16012 420 µm Cylindrical 80,000 g/mol PCL. FDM nozzle speed of 4 mm/s
10.1002/jbmm.a.35393
  • Gelatin [10 wt%]
  • Alginate [2 wt%]
402 27 Gauge Conical Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells (10) Crosslinking occurred post printing
10.1002/jbmm.a.35393
  • Gelatin [10 wt%]
402 27 Gauge Conical Thermally dissipated after printing to create hollow channels.
10.1021/acsami.9b19037
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [7.5 wt%]
  • Kappa Carrageenan [1 wt%]
  • Nanosilicates [2 wt%]
4015 400 µm Conical Primary Human Bone Marrow-Derived Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Crosslinking occurred post printing
10.1021/acsami.7b13602
  • Nanosilicates [6 wt%]
  • Kappa Carrageenan [2.5 wt%]
404 23 Gauge Cylindrical MC3T3-E1 Osteoblasts Material flow rate of 0.3 mL/h. Crosslinking occurred post printing
10.1002/adhm.201901580
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [10 wt%]
  • Kappa Carrageenan [1 wt%]
  • Nanosilicates [2 wt%]
3720 400 µm Cylindrical Crosslinking occurred post printing
10.1016/j.msec.2019.110530
  • Alginate [2 wt%]
  • Gelatin [8 wt%]
283.5 160 µm Cylindrical Primary Rat Schwann Cells (2) Crosslinking occurred post printing
10.1016/j.actbio.2018.01.044
  • Polyurethane [25 wt%]
80 kPa378 410 µm Cylindrical Primary Human Dermal Fibroblasts (1)
10.1088/1758-5082/6/3/035001
  • Gelatin [10 wt%]
  • Alginate [1 wt%]
  • Fibrinogen [2 wt%]
25 25 Gauge Cylindrical Hela Pancreatic Cancer Cells (1) 3wt% CaCl2 was gently added to the construct. After printing the construct was immersed in 20 U ml-1 thrombin for 15 minutes.
10.1088/1758-5090/aacfc3
  • Hydroxypropyl Chitin [3 wt%]
375 260 µm Cylindrical Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (1) A variety of printing pressures, concentrations, and speeds were tested. Furthermore, at 37 C printability was high, however cell viability was low.
10.1088/1758-5090/aba503
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [7.5 wt%]
  • Alginate [2 wt%]
50 kPa - 100 kPa252 - 6 23 Gauge Cylindrical Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (8) Crosslinking occurred post printing.
10.1088/1758-5090/aba503
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [10 wt%]
  • Alginate [1 wt%]
50 kPa - 100 kPa252 - 6 23 Gauge Cylindrical Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (8) Crosslinking occurred post printing.
10.1088/1758-5090/aba503
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [10 wt%]
  • Alginate [2 wt%]
50 kPa - 100 kPa252 - 6 23 Gauge Cylindrical Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (8) Crosslinking occurred post printing.
10.1088/1758-5090/ab98e5
  • Alginate [2 wt%]
17 kPa254 410 µm Cylindrical NIH 3T3 Fibroblasts (1) Precrosslinking was done with the CaCO3. Post printing crosslinking was done with 100mM CaCl2 for 10 minutes.
10.1088/1758-5090/ab8708
  • PCL [100 wt%]
1 Bar786 30 Gauge Cylindrical 50,000 g/mol molecular weight of PCL
10.1088/1758-5090/ab8708
  • Alginate [3.5 wt%]
0.5 Bar254 23 Gauge Conical Primary Porcine Bone Marrow Stromal Cells (15) PCL scaffolds were first immersed in 45mM CaCl2 overnight to initiate crosslinking process during the printing of the hydrogel. Bone marrow-reived stromal cells and chondrocytes were added at a 3:1 ratio.
10.1088/1758-5090/ab8708
  • Alginate [3.5 wt%]
0.5 Bar254 24 Gauge Conical Primary Porcine Cartilage Chondrocytes (5) PCL scaffolds were first immersed in 45mM CaCl2 overnight to initiate crosslinking process during the printing of the hydrogel. Bone marrow-reived stromal cells and chondrocytes were added at a 3:1 ratio.
10.1088/1758-5090/ab8708
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [5 wt%]
0.3 Bar132 25 Gauge Conical Primary Porcine Bone Marrow Stromal Cells (15) PCL scaffolds were first immersed in 45mM CaCl2 overnight to initiate crosslinking process during the printing of the hydrogel. Bone marrow-reived stromal cells and chondrocytes were added at a 3:1 ratio.
10.1088/1758-5090/ab8708
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [5 wt%]
0.3 Bar132 26 Gauge Conical Primary Porcine Cartilage Chondrocytes (5) PCL scaffolds were first immersed in 45mM CaCl2 overnight to initiate crosslinking process during the printing of the hydrogel. Bone marrow-reived stromal cells and chondrocytes were added at a 3:1 ratio.
10.1088/1758-5090/ab8708
  • Alginate [3.5 wt%]
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [5 wt%]
1.3 Bar134 27 Gauge Conical Primary Porcine Bone Marrow Stromal Cells (15) PCL scaffolds were first immersed in 45mM CaCl2 overnight to initiate crosslinking process during the printing of the hydrogel. Bone marrow-reived stromal cells and chondrocytes were added at a 3:1 ratio.
10.1088/1758-5090/ab8708
  • Alginate [3.5 wt%]
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [5 wt%]
1.3 Bar134 28 Gauge Conical Primary Porcine Cartilage Chondrocytes (5) PCL scaffolds were first immersed in 45mM CaCl2 overnight to initiate crosslinking process during the printing of the hydrogel. Bone marrow-reived stromal cells and chondrocytes were added at a 3:1 ratio.
10.1088/1758-5090/ab0f59
  • PLA [100 wt%]
23090 200 µm Cylindrical Mesenchymal stem cells were seeded onto the PLA
10.1088/1758-5090/ab1452
  • Cellink RGD Bionk [100 wt%]
5 kPa - 15 kPa25175 - 200 437 µm Conical Primary Juvenile Mice Interstitial Cells (10) Specialty Nanocellulose-alginate hydrogel bioink from Cellink with RGD motifs.
10.1088/1758-5090/ab0098
  • PCL [100 wt%]
290 kPa - 310 kPa1005 300 µm Cylindrical PCL molecular weight = 45,000 g mol-1.
10.1088/1758-5090/ab03ed
  • Hyaluronic Acid Glycidyl Methacrylated [4 wt%]
  • Alginate [0.5 wt%]
0.5 Bar255 510 µm Cylindrical L929 Fibroblasts (1.5) The Ink also consisted of .5% v/v NVP, .9% w/v NaCl. The ink was also printed into a gelatin slurry.
10.1016/j.jmbbm.2019.103533
  • PCL [100 wt%]
300 kPa905 330 µm Cylindrical PCL molecular weight = 80,000 gmol-1.
10.1016/j.jmbbm.2019.103533
  • Alginate [4 wt%]
45 kPa371.5 19 Gauge Cylindrical BEL-7402 Adenocarcinoma Cells (1) Crosslinking occurred post printing.
10.1016/j.jmbbm.2019.103533
  • Alginate [4 wt%]
  • Beta Tricalcium Phosphate [1 wt%]
45 kPa371.5 19 Gauge Cylindrical BEL-7402 Adenocarcinoma Cells (1) Crosslinking occurred post printing.
10.1016/j.jmbbm.2019.103533
  • Alginate [4 wt%]
  • Beta Tricalcium Phosphate [8 wt%]
50 kPa371.5 19 Gauge Cylindrical BEL-7402 Adenocarcinoma Cells (1) Crosslinking occurred post printing.
10.1088/1758-5090/aae543
  • Collagen Methacrylated [4 mg/mL]
  • Hyaluronic Acid Thiolated [0.67 mg/mL]
4 kPa2550 28 Gauge Cylindrical Primary Human Hepatocytes (5) Crosslinking occurred post printing.
10.1088/1758-5090/aae543
  • Collagen Methacrylated [4.5 mg/mL]
  • Hyaluronic Acid Thiolated [0.5 mg/mL]
4 kPa2550 28 Gauge Cylindrical Crosslinking occurred post printing.
10.1088/1758-5090/aae543
  • Collagen Methacrylated [4.8 mg/mL]
  • Hyaluronic Acid Thiolated [0.4 mg/mL]
4 kPa2550 28 Gauge Cylindrical Crosslinking occurred post printing.
10.1016/j.msec.2020.111072
  • PCL [100 wt%]
500 kPa1000.334 180 µm Cylindrical 90,000-70,000 molecular weight
10.1016/j.msec.2020.111072
  • PCL [100 wt%]
500 kPa1001.167 250 µm Cylindrical 90,000-70,000 molecular weight
10.1016/j.msec.2020.111072
  • PCL [100 wt%]
500 kPa1001.583 330 µm Cylindrical 90,000-70,000 molecular weight
10.1016/j.msec.2020.111072
  • PCL [100 wt%]
500 kPa1001.417 410 µm Cylindrical 90,000-70,000 molecular weight
10.1016/j.msec.2020.111072
  • PCL [100 wt%]
500 kPa1000.667 580 µm Cylindrical 90,000-70,000 molecular weight
10.1016/j.msec.2020.111072
  • PCL [100 wt%]
500 kPa1000.917 1070 µm Cylindrical 90,000-70,000 molecular weight
https://ojs.cnr.ncsu.edu/index.php/BioRes/article/view/BioRes_15_4_7357_Han_Nanocellulose_Alginate_Gelatin_Bioinks/7935
  • Alginate [2.5 wt%]
  • Gelatin [8 wt%]
  • Cellulose Nanofibrillated [0.75 wt%]
375 260 µm Conical
10.1016/j.bprint.2020.e00092
  • Alginate [2.5 wt%]
150 kPa - 160 kPa255 330 µm Cylindrical This print used coaxial extrusion with a core of pluronic F127 mixed with 5wt% CaCl2 for post printing crosslinking and a precrosslinked alginate shell using .2 wt% CaCl2.
10.1016/j.bprint.2020.e00092
  • Pluronic F127 [30 wt%]
50 kPa - 140 kPa255 1070 µm Cylindrical This print used coaxial extrusion with a core of pluronic F127 mixed with 5wt% CaCl2 for post printing crosslinking and a precrosslinked alginate shell using .2 wt% CaCl2.
10.1088/1758-5090/aa9ef1
  • PEG terephthalate [55 wt%]
  • Poly(butylene terephthalate) [45 wt%]
5 bar2008.333 25 Gauge Cylindrical Scaffold was made of PEGT-PBT copolymer which stands for poly(ethylene glycol) - terephthalate - poly(butylene terephthalate)
10.3390/polym12091930
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [5 wt%]
100 kPa2220 27 Gauge Human Dermal Fibroblasts (5) 5wt% was best for the Human Dermal Fibroblasts, but the least printable…
10.3390/polym12091930
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [10 wt%]
100 kPa2220 27 Gauge Human Dermal Fibroblasts (5)
10.3390/polym12091930
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [15 wt%]
100 kPa2220 27 Gauge Human Dermal Fibroblasts (5)
10.1021/acs.biomac.9b00527
  • Cellulose Nanofibrils [1.88 wt%]
43 kPa12 840 μm Cylindrical
10.1021/acs.biomac.9b00527
  • Nanocellulose TEMPO Oxidized [1.7 wt%]
55 kPa8 630 μm Cylindrical
10.1021/acs.biomac.9b00527
  • Nanocellulose Acetylated [0.5 wt%]
35 kPa5 410 μm Cylindrical
10.3390/mi11030237
  • Alginate [8 wt%]
  • PEGDA [3 wt%]
300 kPa259.166667 600 μm Conical
10.3390/mi11030237
  • Pluronic F127 [30 wt%]
125 kPa258.333 600 μm Conical
10.1007/s10856-019-6233-y
  • Collagen [2 wt%]
15 27 Gauge Conical NIH 3T3 Fibroblasts (0.5) Used a specialty ink from 3D bio referrred to as Viscoll Collagen
10.1007/s10856-019-6233-y
  • Collagen [3 wt%]
15 27 Gauge Conical NIH 3T3 Fibroblasts (0.5) Used a specialty ink from 3D bio referrred to as Viscoll Collagen
10.1007/s10856-019-6233-y
  • Collagen [4 wt%]
15 27 Gauge Conical NIH 3T3 Fibroblasts (0.5) Used a specialty ink from 3D bio referrred to as Viscoll Collagen
10.1088/1758-5090/abc39b
  • Gellan Gum [3 wt%]
  • Alginate [2 wt%]
26 kPa2513.34 410 μm Conical
10.1088/1758-5090/abc39b
  • Gellan Gum [4 wt%]
  • Alginate [2 wt%]
26 kPa2513.34 410 μm Conical
10.1088/1758-5090/abc39b
  • Gellan Gum [3 wt%]
  • Alginate [2 wt%]
  • Hydroxyapatite [5 wt%]
26 kPa2513.34 410 μm Conical
10.1088/1758-5090/abc39b
  • Gelatin [7 wt%]
  • Alginate [1 wt%]
26 kPa2513.34 410 μm Conical
10.1088/1758-5090/abc39b
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [7.5 wt%]
  • Laponite [1 wt%]
26 kPa2513.34 410 μm Conical
10.1016/j.carbpol.2020.116211
  • Alginate [0.01 wt%]
  • Clay [0.25 wt%]
22 psi - 25 psi2515 1000 μm the clay used was dimethyl dihydrogenated tallow modified montmorillonite clay (Cloisite® 20A). Electron beam irradation was implemented to crosslink the ink
10.1021/am503878d
  • Alginate [3.1 wt%]
  • Ethylene Glycol [25.8 vol %]
0.6 bar255 23 Gauge Support Alginate Gel
10.1088/1758-5090/8/2/025016
  • Alginate [3 wt%]
  • Gelatin [10 wt%]
15 psi371 25 Gauge Cylindrical Scaffold was printed into a carbopol bath
10.1080/09205063.2019.1627651
  • Gelatin [10 wt%]
  • Oxidized Nanocellulose [10 wt%]
210 kPa14 210 μm Crosslinking occurred prior to printing for 30 minutes
10.1088/1758-5090/ab15a9
  • dECM Small Intestinal Submucosa [2.5 wt%]
  • Pepsin [0.25 wt%]
25 kPa255 360 μm Cylindrical
10.1039/c3bm00012e
  • Alginate [2 wt%]
  • Gelatin [10 wt%]
8 psi51.67 200 μm Cylindrical
10.1039/c3bm00012e
  • Alginate [4 wt%]
  • Gelatin [10 wt%]
9.5 psi51.67 200 μm Cylindrical Primary Myoblasts (0.5)
10.1016/jijbiomac.2020.08.180
  • Chitosan [10 wt%]
3.5 bar3710 250 μm Conical
10.1002/adma.201703404
  • Gelatin Allylated [30 wt%]
2.1 bar4 - 75 23 Gauge Cylindrical Human Articular Chondrocytes (3) Crosslinked with Irgacure 2959 for 3 minutes after printing.
10.3389/fbioe.2020.00217
  • Calcium Phosphate Cement [100 wt%]
150 kPa2510 230 μm Conical
10.3389/fbioe.2020.00217
  • Methylcellulose [10 wt%]
180 kPa2510 410 μm Conical Sacrificial ink
10.1088/1758-5090/ab1d44
  • Poly(DTD DD) [100 wt%]
9 bar1501 - 2.5 400 μm Cylindrical
10.1088/1758-5090/ab1d44
  • PLLA [100 wt%]
9 bar2002 - 12 500 μm Cylindrical
10.1016/j.msec.2019.110510
  • Gellan Gum Methacrylated [4 wt%]
  • Hyaluronic Acid Methacrylated [1.5 wt%]
  • Hydroxyapatite [25 wt%]
103 kPa253.5833 410 μm Cylindrical Crosslinking with Irgacure 2959 at 0.05wt% continued for 5 minute at the top layer.
10.1016/j.msec.2019.110510
  • Gellan Gum Methacrylated [4 wt%]
  • Hyaluronic Acid Methacrylated [1.5 wt%]
25 kPa256.6667 410 μm Cylindrical Primary Bovine Chondrocytes (10) Crosslinking with Irgacure 2959 at 0.05wt% continued for 5 minute at the top layer.
10.1016/j.msec.2017.05.144
  • Gelatin [10 wt%]
  • Alginate [2 wt%]
15 psi372 25 Gauge Cylindrical NIH 3T3 Fibroblasts (5) Printed into a laponite bath
10.1088/1758-5090/ab69d9
  • Alpha Tricalcium Phosphate [66 wt%]
  • Hydroxyapatite [4 wt%]
  • Pluronic F127 [40 wt%]
200 kPa20 - 252 250 μm Conical
10.1088/1758-5090/ab736e
  • Alginate [5 wt%]
  • Xanthan Gum [6 wt%]
  • Carboxylated Cellulose [55 wt%]
45 kPa - 95 kPa251 410 μm Conical
10.1088/1758-5090/aba2f7
  • Hyaluronic Acid Mono-Aldehyde [50 wt%]
  • Carboxymethyl Cellulose Carbohydrazide [50 wt%]
250 kPa372.5 27 Gauge Cylindrical NIH 3T3 Fibroblasts (0.1)
10.1111/iej.12799
  • PCL [40 wt%]
  • Biodentine [60 wt%]
500 kPa951 Cylindrical
10.1111/iej.12799
  • PCL [100 wt%]
500 kPa955 Cylindrical
10.1088/1758-5090/aa869f
  • PEGDA [20 wt%]
  • Alginate [1 wt%]
3.5 psi - 6.5 psi25 32 Gauge Cylindrical
10.1088/1758-5090/aa869f
  • PEGDA [20 wt%]
  • Xanthan Gum [0.5 wt%]
3.5 psi - 5 psi25 32 Gauge Cylindrical
10.1088/1758-5090/aa869f
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [15 wt%]
10 psi - 12 psi25 32 Gauge Cylindrical
10.1088/1758-5090/aba411
  • dECM Porcine Tendon [3 wt%]
230 kPa1615 200 μm Cylindrical Primary Rat Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells (3) The dECM was derived from porcine tendon. Additionally, this ink was classified as a high viscosity ink.
10.1088/1758-5090/aba411
  • dECM Porcine Tendon [3 wt%]
40 kPa1615 200 μm Cylindrical Primary Rat Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells (3) The dECM was derived from porcine tendon. Additionally, this ink was classified as a high viscosity ink.
10.1088/1758-5090/aba411
  • dECM Porcine Tendon [3 wt%]
10 kPa1615 200 μm Conical Primary Rat Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells (3) The dECM was derived from porcine tendon. Additionally, this ink was classified as a high viscosity ink.
10.1007/s10439-016-1685-4
  • Alpha Tricalcium Phosphate [60 wt%]
  • Calcium Hydrogen Phosphate [26 wt%]
  • Calcium Carbonate [10 wt%]
  • Hyaluronic Acid [4 wt%]
250 kPa2512 330 μm Conical the carrier liquid was prepared from Miglyol 812, Tween 80 and Amphisol A.
10.1007/s10439-016-1685-4
  • Alginate [16.7 wt%]
400 kPa - 430 kPa254.5 250 μm Conical Crosslinked with 1M CaCl2 for 10 minutes post printing.
10.1007/s10439-016-1685-4
  • Alginate [12.548 wt%]
  • Gellan Gum [1.716 wt%]
450 kPa254 410 μm Conical Crosslinked with 1M CaCl2 for 10 minutes post printing.
10.1007/s10439-016-1685-4
  • Alginate [12.548 wt%]
  • Gellan Gum [1.716 wt%]
400 kPa - 430 kPa254.5 250 μm Conical Crosslinked with 1M CaCl2 for 10 minutes post printing.
10.1007/s10439-016-1685-4
  • Alpha Tricalcium Phosphate [60 wt%]
  • Calcium Hydrogen Phosphate [26 wt%]
  • Calcium Carbonate [10 wt%]
  • Hyaluronic Acid Precipitated [4 wt%]
250 kPa259 230 μm Conical the carrier liquid was prepared from Miglyol 812, Tween 80 and Amphisol A.
10.1021/acsami.7b16059
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [5 wt%]
  • Gelatin [8 wt%]
300 kPa15 - 251.666667 - 8.333333 260 μm Cylindrical Primary Bone Marrow Stem Cells (5)
10.1016/j.xphs.2018.08.026
  • Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose [30 wt%]
  • Mannitol [55 wt%]
  • Polyethylene Glycol [10 wt%]
  • Kollidon [5 wt%]
30 kPa - 60 kPa2510 20 Gauge
10.1016/j.xphs.2018.08.026
  • Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose [40 wt%]
  • Mannitol [45 wt%]
  • Polyethylene Glycol [10 wt%]
  • Kollidon [5 wt%]
30 kPa - 60 kPa2510 20 Gauge
10.1016/j.xphs.2018.08.026
  • Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose [50 wt%]
  • Mannitol [35 wt%]
  • Polyethylene Glycol [10 wt%]
  • Kollidon [5 wt%]
30 kPa - 60 kPa2510 20 Gauge
10.3390/pharmaceutics11070334
  • Hydroxypropyl Cellulose [7.5 wt%]
  • Warfarin Sodium [0.75 wt%]
25 psi258 25 Gauge Cylindrical
10.1021/acsami.7b02398
  • Alginate [8 wt%]
20 psi2 250 μm Cylindrical A laponite support bath was implemented
10.1021/acsami.7b02398
  • Gelatin [10 wt%]
  • Alginate [2 wt%]
15 psi372 250 μm Cylindrical NIH 3T3 Fibroblasts (5) A laponite support bath was implemented
10.1021/acsami.7b02398
  • SU-8 2050 [100 wt%]
20 psi1 250 μm Cylindrical A laponite support bath was implemented
10.1089/ten.TEC.2020.0050
  • E-Shell 300 [70 wt%]
  • Hydroxyapatite [30 wt%]
1 bar2512 600 μm Cylindrical E-Shell 300 is a photocurable resin specialty ink. After printing a ultraviolet head was used to cure the deposited ceramic ink for 10s.
10.1089/ten.TEC.2020.0050
  • E-Shell 300 [70 wt%]
  • Beta Tricalcium Phosphate [30 wt%]
1 bar2512 600 μm Cylindrical E-Shell 300 is a photocurable resin specialty ink. After printing a ultraviolet head was used to cure the deposited ceramic ink for 10s.
10.1089/ten.TEC.2020.0050
  • E-Shell 300 [70 wt%]
  • Hydroxyapatite [15 wt%]
  • Beta Tricalcium Phosphate [15 wt%]
1 bar2512 600 μm Cylindrical E-Shell 300 is a photocurable resin specialty ink. After printing a ultraviolet head was used to cure the deposited ceramic ink for 10s.
10.1021/acsami.8b00806
  • Laponite [6 wt%]
  • N-isopropylacrylamide [18 wt%]
11 psi251 330 μm Cylindrical
10.1021/acsami.8b00806
  • Laponite [6 wt%]
  • N-isopropylacrylamide [18 wt%]
  • Graphene Oxide [0.44 wt%]
15 psi250.75 330 μm Cylindrical
10.1002/adma.201604827
  • Poly(acrylamide) [3.86 wt%]
  • Acrylamide [9.05 wt%]
  • MBAA [0.072 wt%]
  • α‐ketoglutaric acid [4.95 wt%]
257.5 337 μm Cylindrical TEMED at .479%. Printed samples were exposed to a 8 mw/cm^2. PAAm stands for polyacrylamide, AAM stands for acrylamide, MBAA stands for N,N-methylenebis(acrylamide), and TEMED stands for N,N,N,N-tetramethylethylenediamine
10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2019.08.124
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [10 wt%]
0.7 bar2310.833 200 μm Cylindrical
10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2019.08.124
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [10 wt%]
  • Kappa Carrageenan [5 wt%]
0.6 bar26.510.833 200 μm Cylindrical
10.3390/gels4030069
  • Poloxamer 407 [22.5 wt%]
  • PEGDA [20 wt%]
22.58 510 μm Conical Poloxamer 407 is a thermoresponsive block copolymer and PEG-DA is poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate
10.1088/1758-5090/ab69d9
  • Pluronic F127 [40 wt%]
  • Alpha Tricalcium Phosphate [66 wt%]
  • Hydroxyapatite nano [4 wt%]
200 kPa20 - 252 250 μm Conical
10.3390/bioengineering7020030
  • Cellulose [20 wt%]
14 psi255 425 μm Cylindrical Cellulose was created by dissolving in urea and NaOH.
10.1016/j.msec.2019.109873
  • Chitosan [2 wt%]
  • Pectin [2 wt%]
10.7 psi - 15.1 psi256 254 μm Cylindrical
10.1016/j.msec.2019.109873
  • Chitosan [2 wt%]
  • Pectin [2 wt%]
  • Lidocaine [2 wt%]
10.7 psi - 15.1 psi256 254 μm Cylindrical
10.1016/j.msec.2019.109873
  • Chitosan [2 wt%]
  • Pectin [2 wt%]
  • Lidocaine [5 wt%]
10.7 psi - 15.1 psi256 254 μm Cylindrical
10.1016/j.msec.2019.109873
  • Chitosan [2 wt%]
  • Pectin [2 wt%]
  • Lidocaine [10 wt%]
10.7 psi - 15.1 psi256 254 μm Cylindrical
10.1088/1758-5090/aa8dd8
  • Pluronic F127 [25 wt%]
2 bar2415 125 μm Cylindrical
10.1088/1758-5090/aa8dd8
  • Alginate [8 wt%]
3.5 bar2410 125 μm Cylindrical Bioink contained 1% pre-crosslinked alginate
10.1088/1758-5090/aa8dd8
  • Alginate [8 wt%]
2 bar2410 165 μm Cylindrical Bioink contained 1% pre-crosslinked alginate
10.1088/1758-5090/aa8dd8
  • Alginate [2 wt%]
  • Gelatin [10 wt%]
0.8 bar3710 125 μm Cylindrical
10.3390/gels6020013
  • Alginate Polypyrrole [2 wt%]
5 kPa252.33 100 μm Cylindrical After printing 5w/v% CaCl2 was added dropwise
10.1002/mabi.202000106
  • Gelatin [5 wt%]
  • Cellulose [2 wt%]
  • Alginate [2 wt%]
2510 700 μm Cylindrical Hydrogels were crosslinked with glutaraldehyde or CaCl2 (10w/v%)
10.1021/acsami.9b22062
  • Alginate [10 mg/ml]
  • Alginate Methacrylated [6 mg/ml]
  • Chondroitin Sulfate Methacrylated [6 mg/ml]
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [6 mg/ml]
1 bar550 25 Gauge Cylindrical
10.1021/acsami.9b22062
  • Alginate [10 mg/ml]
  • Alginate Methacrylated [6 mg/ml]
  • Chondroitin Sulfate Methacrylated [6 mg/ml]
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [6 mg/ml]
1 bar550 25 Gauge Cylindrical Contains Graphene Oxide at a concentration of .1mg/ml
10.1021/acsami.9b22062
  • Alginate [10 mg/ml]
  • Alginate Methacrylated [6 mg/ml]
  • Chondroitin Sulfate Methacrylated [6 mg/ml]
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [6 mg/ml]
1 bar550 25 Gauge Cylindrical Contains Graphene Oxide at a concentration 1mg/ml of .1mg/ml
10.1021/acsami.9b05460
  • Gelatin [7.5 wt%]
  • Carboxymethyl Cellulose [7.5 wt%]
  • Hydroxyapatite [10 wt%]
5 psi2816.6667 22 Gauge Cylindrical
10.1021/acsami.9b05460
  • Gelatin [7.5 wt%]
  • Carboxymethyl Cellulose [7.5 wt%]
  • Hydroxyapatite [10 wt%]
5 psi2816.6667 22 Gauge Cylindrical
10.1021/acsami.9b05460
  • Gelatin [5 wt%]
  • Carboxymethyl Cellulose [5 wt%]
  • Hydroxyapatite [10 wt%]
5 psi2212.5 22 Gauge Cylindrical
10.1002/marc.201900610
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [10 wt%]
  • Pyranine [0.1 mM]
20 200 μm 0.1mM pyranine and 1mM of mBA were added to GelMA. UV crosslinking was implemeted per layer with a 365nm lamp for 1 minute. Additionally after all five layers were printed the scaffold was crosslinked for an additional minute.
10.3389/fbioe.2020.00400
  • Chitosan [2 wt%]
  • Gelatin [4 wt%]
2.5 bar202 330 μm Cylindrical
10.1248/bpb.b19-00481
  • Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose [3 wt%]
  • Mannitol [2 wt%]
20 kPa25 27 Gauge
10.1248/bpb.b19-00481
  • Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose [4 wt%]
  • Mannitol [2 wt%]
50 kPa25 27 Gauge
10.1248/bpb.b19-00481
  • Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose [5 wt%]
  • Mannitol [2 wt%]
70 kPa25 27 Gauge
10.1248/bpb.b19-00481
  • Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose [3 wt%]
  • Mannitol [2 wt%]
  • Catechin [0.5 wt%]
20 kPa25 27 Gauge
10.1248/bpb.b19-00481
  • Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose [4 wt%]
  • Mannitol [2 wt%]
  • Catechin [0.5 wt%]
50 kPa25 27 Gauge
10.1248/bpb.b19-00481
  • Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose [5 wt%]
  • Mannitol [2 wt%]
  • Catechin [0.5 wt%]
70 kPa25 27 Gauge
10.1016/j.carbpol.2020.116496
  • Hyaluronic Acid Oxidized [1.5 wt%]
  • Glycol Chitosan [0.3 wt%]
  • Iron Oxide Nanoparticles [5 wt%]
255 25 Gauge Cylindrical
10.1016/j.msec.2017.05.144
  • Alginate [2 wt%]
  • Gelatin [10 wt%]
15 psi372 250 μm Cylindrical NIH 3T3 Fibroblasts (5) Thermally gelled in the 2 w/v% nanoclay bath at room temperature.
10.1016/j.colsurfb.2019.06.069
  • Alginate [2 wt%]
  • Gelatin [15 wt%]
200 kPa307 330 μm Cylindrical Human amniotic epithelial cells (1)
10.1016/j.colsurfb.2019.06.069
  • Alginate [2 wt%]
  • Gelatin [15 wt%]
200 kPa307 330 μm Cylindrical Wharton’s jelly derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (1)
10.1016/j.actbio.2020.11.006
  • dECM Cardiac [4.6 wt%]
  • Laponite [2.3 wt%]
  • PEGDA [6 wt%]
9 psi25 260 μm Cylindrical
10.1016/j.actbio.2020.11.006
  • dECM Cardiac [4.6 wt%]
  • Laponite [2.3 wt%]
  • PEGDA [6 wt%]
8 psi25 22 Gauge Cylindrical
10.1177/2472630317742071
  • Alginate [2 wt%]
20 psi2310 159 μm Cylindrical Supporting hydrogel bath was implemented
10.1016/j.msec.2020.111008
  • Carboxymethyl Cellulose [50 mg/ml]
  • Glycol Chitosan [50 mg/ml]
50 kPa353 25 Gauge Conical
10.1002/jbm.b.34771
  • Alginate [2.5 wt%]
  • Gelatin [3.75 wt%]
  • Laponite [0.5 wt%]
30 kPa - 35 kPa11 - 14 250 μm Cylindrical
10.3390/jfb10010012
  • Chitosan [5 wt%]
256 420 μm Conical
10.1021/acs.biomac.9b01266
  • PEOXA [2.5 wt%]
18 kPa - 21 kPa25 410 μm Conical The PEOXA (poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline)) was functionalized with peptides LPETG and GGGG
10.1021/acs.biomac.9b01266
  • PEOXA [2.5 wt%]
  • Alginate [5 wt%]
  • Cellulose Nanofibrils [2 wt%]
20 kPa - 28 kPa25 410 μm Conical Primary Human Articular Chondrocytes (10) The PEOXA (poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline)) was functionalized with peptides LPETG and GGGG
10.1016/j.biomaterials.2020.120476
  • Glycosaminoglycan Nanoparticles [0.25 mg/ml]
  • Laponite [30 mg/ml]
50 kPa - 85 kPa2512 25 Gauge Conical
10.3390/ma11040579
  • Methylcellulose [8 wt%]
24 - 261 18 Gauge The descending speed of the piston (along the z-axis) was 1.45 μm/s.
10.1021/acsomega.9b03100
  • Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose Sillylated [13.5 wt%]
40 psi - 50 psi3710 27 Gauge Conical
10.1038/s41598-020-65050-9
  • Alginate [3 wt%]
  • Methylcellulose [9 wt%]
90 kPa10 410 μm Conical Primary Human Chondrocytes (5)
10.1038/s41598-020-65050-9
  • Calcium Phosphate Cement [100 wt%]
100 kPa11 410 μm Conical
10.1371/journal.pone.0216776
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [7.5 wt%]
  • Gellan Gum [0.2 wt%]
1.2 bar24 - 261.6667 210 μm Cylindrical C2C12 Myoblasts (4)
10.1177/2041731420967294
  • SPE monomer [10 wt%]
  • Laponite [6 wt%]
0.8 bar2510 1000 μm Cylindrical SPE stands for (N-(3-Sulfopropyl)-Nmethacroyloxyethyl- N,N-dimethylammonium betaine. Additionally, the material was cured using I2959 at 2.2 mW/cm2 for an hour
10.1016/j.actbio.2018.01.044
  • Polyurethane [25 wt%]
80 kPa378 410 Conical Human Dermal Fibroblasts with FoxD3 Plasmid (1)
10.1088/1748-605X/abbcc9
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [10 wt%]
300 kPa150.1666 - 0.8333 260 μm Cylindrical
10.1089/ten.TEC.2020.0053
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [5 wt%]
300 kPa226 260 μm
10.1038/s41598-018-31880-x
  • Alginate [2 wt%]
  • Gelatin [3 wt%]
  • Matrigel [20 wt%]
10 kPa - 20 kPa20 22 Gauge Cylindrical A549 Human Epithelial Cells (7) The bioink was precrosslinked with 2.5 wt% CaSO4 for 8 mins
10.1088/1758-5090/ab98e4
  • Gelatin [7.5 wt%]
  • Alginate Oxidized [3.75 wt%]
30 kPa3010 330 μm Cylindrical C2C12 Myoblasts (8)
10.1088/1758-5090/ab98e4
  • Gelatin [7.5 wt%]
  • Alginate Oxidized [3.75 wt%]
40 kPa3010 330 μm Cylindrical C2C12 Myoblasts (8)
10.1088/1758-5090/ab98e4
  • Gelatin [7.5 wt%]
  • Alginate Oxidized [3.75 wt%]
60 kPa3010 250 μm Cylindrical C2C12 Myoblasts (8)
10.1021/acsomega.0c05036
  • Cellulose Nanofibrillated [1.15 wt%]
100 kPa - 200 kPa2510 150 μm Cylindrical
10.1016/j.actbio.2019.04.026
  • Poly(ethylene vinyl acetate) [100 wt%]
350 kPa130 - 1401 250 μm Cylindrical
10.1016/j.actbio.2019.04.026
  • dECM Cardiac [0.6 wt%]
  • Collagen [0.6 wt%]
10 Primary Neonatal Rat Cardiomyocytes (20) No information on bioink printing parameters available
10.1016/j.actbio.2019.04.026
  • dECM Cardiac [1.2 wt%]
  • Collagen [1.2 wt%]
10 Primary Neonatal Rat Cardiomyocytes (20) No information on bioink printing parameters available
10.1039/c9bm00480g
  • Xylorhamno-Uronic Acid Methacrylated [10 wt%]
  • Gelatin [5 wt%]
3.5 bar2310 200 μm Cylindrical Human Dermal Fibroblasts (1)
10.1088/1758-5090/ab0692
  • Gelatin [5 wt%]
  • Alginate [4 wt%]
1.5 bar - 2.2 bar2620 510 μm Cylindrical
10.1088/1758-5090/ab0692
  • Gelatin [5 wt%]
  • Alginate [4 wt%]
  • Cellulose Nanofibrils [0.25 wt%]
1.5 bar - 2.1 bar2630 - 45 511 μm Cylindrical
10.1088/1758-5090/ab0692
  • Gelatin [5 wt%]
  • Alginate [4 wt%]
  • Bioactive Glass [1 wt%]
1.6 bar - 3.5 bar2617 - 25 512 μm Cylindrical
10.1088/1758-5090/ab0692
  • Gelatin [5 wt%]
  • Alginate [4 wt%]
  • Cellulose Nanofibrils [0.25 wt%]
  • Bioactive Glass [1 wt%]
2 bar - 3.2 bar2650 - 65 513 μm Cylindrical
10.1088/1758-5090/ab0692
  • Gelatin [5 wt%]
  • Alginate [4 wt%]
0.9 bar - 1.8 bar2620 - 35 514 μm Cylindrical Saos-2 Human Bone Osteosarcoma cells (5)
10.1088/1758-5090/ab0692
  • Gelatin [5 wt%]
  • Alginate [4 wt%]
  • Cellulose Nanofibrils [0.25 wt%]
1.5 bar - 2 bar2635 - 45 515 μm Cylindrical Saos-2 Human Bone Osteosarcoma cells (5)
10.1088/1758-5090/ab0692
  • Gelatin [5 wt%]
  • Alginate [4 wt%]
  • Cellulose Nanofibrils [0.25 wt%]
2.6 bar - 2.8 bar2640 - 47 516 μm Cylindrical Human Bone Marrow-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (5)
10.1088/1758-5090/ab0692
  • Gelatin [5 wt%]
  • Alginate [4 wt%]
  • Bioactive Glass [1 wt%]
1.9 bar - 3 bar2615 - 25 517 μm Cylindrical Saos-2 Human Bone Osteosarcoma cells (5)
10.1088/1758-5090/ab0692
  • Gelatin [5 wt%]
  • Alginate [4 wt%]
  • Cellulose Nanofibrils [0.25 wt%]
  • Bioactive Glass [1 wt%]
2 bar - 3.2 bar2650 - 63 518 μm Cylindrical Saos-2 Human Bone Osteosarcoma cells (5)
10.1088/1758-5090/ab0692
  • Gelatin [5 wt%]
  • Alginate [4 wt%]
  • Cellulose Nanofibrils [0.25 wt%]
  • Bioactive Glass [1 wt%]
2.4 bar - 3 bar2650 - 57 519 μm Cylindrical Human Bone Marrow-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (5)
10.1021/acsbiomaterials.9b00843
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [10 wt%]
120 kPa3010 150 μm
10.3390/jfb9040063
  • Alginate [2 wt%]
1.8 psi - 2.4 psi37 256 μm Cylindrical NIH 3T3 Fibroblasts GFP (5)
10.3390/jfb9040063
  • Alginate [3 wt%]
2.1 psi - 2.8 psi37 256 μm Cylindrical Human-adipose tissue derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (5)
10.3390/jfb9040063
  • Alginate [4 wt%]
9.9 psi - 13.1 psi37 256 μm Cylindrical NIH 3T3 Fibroblasts GFP (5)
10.1016/j.jot.2019.05.003
  • PCL [100 wt%]
70 - 756 330 μm Cylindrical PCL MW = 45,000 g/mol. Screw based extrusion at 15 rpm
10.18063/ijb.v6i4.296
  • Gelatin [10 wt%]
  • Transglutaminase [5 wt%]
1 kPa - 700 kPa4016 200 μm Cylindrical
10.1002/smll.202004452
  • Pluronic F127 [40 wt%]
  • Magnetic nanoflowers [210 mM]
2 bar1825 150 μm Conical
10.1016/j.actbio.2019.05.062
  • Gelatin Norbornene [5 wt%]
  • Gelatin Thiolated [5 wt%]
2.3 bar275 200 μm Conical
10.1016/j.actbio.2019.05.062
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [10 wt%]
0.7 bar2310.833 200 μm Conical
10.1016/j.colsurfb.2018.08.006
  • Gelatin [10 wt%]
  • Alginate [1 wt%]
  • Fibrinogen [1 wt%]
253.5 260 μm Cylindrical GSC23 Glioblastoma Cells (0.1)
10.1002/adhm.201800418
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [10 wt%]
0.5 bar15 - 1825 Cylindrical Equine-derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (20)
10.1002/adhm.201800418
  • Pluronic F127 [40 wt%]
1 bar2522 Cylindrical
10.1088/1758-5090/8/3/035012
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [10 wt%]
80 psi8 27 Gauge Cylindrical NIH 3T3 Fibroblasts (0.5)
10.1088/1758-5090/8/3/035012
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [15 wt%]
100 psi - 110 psi8 27 Gauge Cylindrical
10.1088/1758-5090/8/3/035012
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [20 wt%]
130 psi8 27 Gauge Cylindrical
10.1007/s13205-018-1341-9
  • Gelatin [10 wt%]
  • Alginate [2 wt%]
373.5 260 μm Cylindrical RSC96 Neuronal Schwann Cells (2) Extrusion of 0.15 mL/s. Gel was crosslinked with 3 w/v% of CaCl2 post printing
10.1021/acsbiomaterials.0c00940
  • Hyaluronic Acid Methacrylated [10 mg/ml]
  • Collagen [3 mg/ml]
50 kPa - 70 kPa2510 27 Gauge Using either 3mg/ml of LAP or I2959 the scaffold was crosslinked with UV for 2 seconds every 2 layers
10.1039/c5tb01645b
  • PEG-NIPAAm-HPMACys [7.5 wt%]
  • PEG NHS [3.8 wt%]
3.4 bar255 250 μm Conical
10.1039/c5tb01645b
  • PEG-NIPAAm-HPMACys [7.5 wt%]
  • HA NHS [1.6 wt%]
3.4 bar255 250 μm Conical
10.1039/c5tb01645b
  • pHMGCL-NHS [100 wt%]
400 kPa1404.1667 25 Gauge Cylindrical pHMGCL-NHS stands for poly(hydroxymethylglycolide-co-ε-caprolactone.
10.1016/j.mtbio.2020.100078
  • Hyaluronic Acid Phenolic Hydroxyl Functionalized [1.5 wt%]
2522 27 Gauge Cylindrical 10T1/2 Murine Fibroblasts (5) Ink flow rate of 22 mm/s
10.1016/j.mtbio.2020.100078
  • Hyaluronic Acid Phenolic Hydroxyl Functionalized [0.1 wt%]
  • Hyaluronic Acid [0.9 wt%]
  • Gelatin Phenolic Hydroxyl Functionalized [1 wt%]
2522 27 Gauge Cylindrical 10T1/2 Murine Fibroblasts (5) Ink flow rate of 22 mm/s
10.1016/j.mtbio.2020.100078
  • Hyaluronic Acid Phenolic Hydroxyl Functionalized [1.5 wt%]
  • Silk Fibroin Nanofibers [1 wt%]
2522 27 Gauge Cylindrical 10T1/2 Murine Fibroblasts (5) Ink flow rate of 22 mm/s
10.1016/j.mtbio.2020.100078
  • Hyaluronic Acid Phenolic Hydroxyl Functionalized [0.1 wt%]
  • Hyaluronic Acid [0.9 wt%]
  • Gelatin Phenolic Hydroxyl Functionalized [1 wt%]
  • Silk Fibroin Nanofibers [1 wt%]
2522 27 Gauge Cylindrical 10T1/2 Murine Fibroblasts (5) Ink flow rate of 22 mm/s
10.1021/bm801463q
  • Pluronic F127 di(alpha-bromoesters) [25 wt%]
2 bar416 210 μm Cylindrical
10.1039/c3tb21159b
  • Alginate [3 wt%]
  • Acrylamide [wt%]
30 kPa - 130 kPa25 337 μm Cylindrical Variations of CaCl2-based hydrogel crosslinking were tested
10.1002/adhm.201800213
  • Pluronic F127 [30 wt%]
  • Metformin Hydrochloride [12.5 mg/ml]
12 psi2510 27 Gauge Conical Metformin Hydrochloride is a oral agent used to treat diabetes.
10.1002/adhm.201800213
  • Pluronic F127 [30 wt%]
  • Glyburide [100 mg/ml]
8 psi258 22 Gauge Conical Acarbose is a oral agent used to treat diabetes.
10.1002/adhm.201800213
  • Pluronic F127 [30 wt%]
  • Acarbose [1 mg/ml]
12 psi2510 27 Gauge Conical Glyburide is a oral agent used to treat diabetes.
10.1021/acsami.7b03613
  • PEGDA [6 wt%]
  • Laponite [10 wt%]
22 psi - 25 psi250.75 - 1 250 μm Conical Printed structures were exposed to UV light for 10 minutes.
10.1021/acsami.7b03613
  • Alginate [0.5 wt%]
  • Laponite [6 wt%]
22 psi - 25 psi250.75 - 1 250 μm Conical Printed structure was submerged in 2 wt% CaCl2
10.1021/acsami.7b03613
  • Gelatin [10 wt%]
  • Laponite [7 wt%]
22 psi - 25 psi250.75 - 1 250 μm Conical
10.1016/j.mtbio.2020.100058
  • Hyaluronic Acid Tyramine Functionalized [25 mg/ml]
  • Collagen [5 mg/mL]
0.2 bar20 - 228 15 Gauge Cylindrical
10.1016/j.mtbio.2020.100058
  • Hyaluronic Acid Tyramine Functionalized [25 mg/ml]
  • Collagen [5 mg/mL]
1.6 bar20 - 228 18 Gauge Cylindrical
10.1002/adfm.201801850
  • Gelatin [7.5 wt%]
  • Fibrinogen [10 mg/mL]
  • Hyaluronic Acid [3 mg/mL]
  • Calcium chloride [2.5 mM]
0.5 psi - 1 psi371 - 3 100 μm Cylindrical PCS‐201‐010 Primary Dermal Fibroblasys (10) Hydrogels crosslinked with thrombin/transglutaminase at 100U/mL and 0.2 wt% respectively.
10.1002/adfm.201801850
  • Gelatin [7.5 wt%]
  • Fibrinogen [10 mg/mL]
  • Hyaluronic Acid [3 mg/mL]
  • Calcium chloride [2.5 mM]
0.5 psi - 1 psi371 - 3 100 μm Cylindrical hiPSC‐derived Ventral Spinal Neuronal Progenitor Cells (10) Hydrogels crosslinked with thrombin/transglutaminase at 100U/mL and 0.2 wt% respectively.
10.1002/adfm.201801850
  • Gelatin [7.5 wt%]
  • Fibrinogen [10 mg/mL]
  • Hyaluronic Acid [3 mg/mL]
  • Calcium chloride [2.5 mM]
0.5 psi - 1 psi371 - 3 100 μm Cylindrical miPSC‐derived Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Cells (10) Hydrogels crosslinked with thrombin/transglutaminase at 100U/mL and 0.2 wt% respectively.
10.1002/adfm.201801850
  • Matrigel [50 wt%]
0.5 psi - 1 psi41 - 3 100 μm Cylindrical hiPSC‐derived Ventral Spinal Neuronal Progenitor Cells (10)
10.1002/adfm.201801850
  • Matrigel [50 wt%]
0.5 psi - 1 psi41 - 3 100 μm Cylindrical miPSC‐derived Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Cells (10)
10.1002/adfm.201801850
  • Matrigel [50 wt%]
0.5 psi - 1 psi41 - 3 100 μm Cylindrical PCS‐201‐010 Primary Dermal Fibroblasys (10)
10.1002/adfm.201801850
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [7.5 wt%]
0.5 psi - 1 psi371 - 3 100 μm Cylindrical hiPSC‐derived Ventral Spinal Neuronal Progenitor Cells (10) Hydrogels crosslinked with 0.05 wt% LAP as the photoinitiator
10.1002/adfm.201801850
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [7.5 wt%]
0.5 psi - 1 psi371 - 3 100 μm Cylindrical miPSC‐derived Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Cells (10) Hydrogels crosslinked with 0.05 wt% LAP as the photoinitiator
10.1002/adfm.201801850
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [7.5 wt%]
0.5 psi - 1 psi371 - 3 100 μm Cylindrical PCS‐201‐010 Primary Dermal Fibroblasys (10) Hydrogels crosslinked with 0.05 wt% LAP as the photoinitiator
10.1002/adfm.201801850
  • PEGDA [20 wt%]
  • Polyethylene oxide [5.5 wt%]
  • Glycerol [10 wt%]
80 psi - 200 psi251 - 3 100 μm Cylindrical Hydrogels crosslinked with 0.05 wt% LAP as the photoinitiator. Other photoinitiators were used but LAP produced best results
10.1002/adfm.201801850
  • Alginate [6 wt%]
  • Methylcellulose [18 wt%]
80 psi - 200 psi251 - 3 100 μm Cylindrical Alginate of different viscosities were tested
10.1002/adfm.201801850
  • Loctite [100 wt%]
80 psi - 200 psi251 - 3 100 μm Cylindrical The silicone was cured at ambient temperature for 5 hours
10.1002/mabi.201900364
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [10 wt%]
120 kPa3010 150 μm Conical
10.1088/1758-5090/aa90e2
  • Pluronic F127 [30 wt%]
160 kPa - 200 kPa256 330 μm Cylindrical
10.1088/1758-5090/aa90e2
  • Pluronic F127 [29 wt%]
  • PEG [1 wt%]
130 kPa - 170 kPa256 330 μm Cylindrical
10.1088/1758-5090/aa90e2
  • Pluronic F127 [28 wt%]
  • PEG [2 wt%]
120 kPa - 150 kPa256 330 μm Cylindrical
10.1088/1758-5090/aa90e2
  • Pluronic F127 [27 wt%]
  • PEG [3 wt%]
90 kPa - 120 kPa256 330 μm Cylindrical
10.1088/1758-5090/aa90e2
  • Pluronic F127 [26 wt%]
  • PEG [4 wt%]
70 kPa - 90 kPa256 330 μm Cylindrical
10.1088/1758-5090/aa90e2
  • Pluronic F127 [20 wt%]
60 kPa - 80 kPa256 330 μm Cylindrical
10.1007/s10439-016-1704-5
  • Alginate Sulfate [1 wt%]
  • Nanocellulose [1.36 wt%]
6 kPa 413 μm Conical Primary Bovine Chondrocytes (6) Post printing constructs were submerged for 12 min in 100 mM CaCl2
10.1007/s10439-016-1704-5
  • Alginate Sulfate [1 wt%]
  • Nanocellulose [1.36 wt%]
6 kPa 260 μm Conical Primary Bovine Chondrocytes (6) Post printing constructs were submerged for 12 min in 100 mM CaCl2
10.1088/1758-5090/aaccbf
  • Alginate [2 wt%]
10 bar3712 300 μm Cylindrical Human Adipose Derived Stem Cells (5) Post printing constructs were submerged in 2 wt% CaCl2 for 5 mins
10.1007/978-1-0716-0611-7_6
  • Laponite [3 wt%]
  • Alginate [3 wt%]
  • Methylcellulose [3 wt%]
80 kPa - 95 kPa 410 μm Conical Skeletal Stem Cells (1)
10.1088/1758-5090/aa7e96
  • Laponite [3 wt%]
  • Alginate [3 wt%]
  • Methylcellulose [3 wt%]
80 kPa - 95 kPa258 - 10 410 μm Conical Human mesenchymal stem cell (5) The MSCs used was a cell line expressing human telomerase reverse transcriptase. Post printing constructs were submerged for 10 min in 100 mM CaCl2
10.3791/50632
  • Pluronic F127 [24.5 wt%]
1.5 bar251.25 150 Gauge Cylindrical
10.1088/1758-5090/8/1/015019
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [10 wt%]
  • Hyaluronic Acid Methacrylated [2 wt%]
140 kPa - 165 kPa2530 860 μm Conical The printing was done through a biopen with a collinear extrusion nozzle
10.1021/acsbiomaterials.8b00416
  • Hyaluronic Acid Tyramine Functionalized [3.5 wt%]
4 bar254 250 μm Cylindrical The HA-Tyr bioink contained 0.1 U/mL of HRP, 0.02% EO, and 0.17 mM H202 for crosslinking prior to 3D printing
10.3390/polym8050170
  • Alginate [16.7 wt%]
480 kPa25 840 μm Cylindrical Post printing constructs were crosslinked with 1M CaCl2
10.3390/polym8050170
  • Alginate [16.7 wt%]
  • Gellan Gum [2 wt%]
520 kPa25 840 μm Cylindrical Post printing constructs were crosslinked with 1M CaCl2
10.3390/polym8050170
  • Alginate [16.7 wt%]
  • Gellan Gum [3 wt%]
530 kPa25 840 μm Cylindrical Post printing constructs were crosslinked with 1M CaCl2
10.3390/ma9090756
  • Pluronic F127 [24.5 wt%]
100 kPa250.02 21 Gauge Cylindrical
10.1002/term.2058
  • Alginate [3 wt%]
  • Methylcellulose [9 wt%]
0.8 bar - 1 bar2520 250 μm Cylindrical Post printing constructs were crosslinked with 0.1M CaCl2
10.1002/term.2058
  • Alginate [3 wt%]
0.8 bar - 1 bar2520 200 μm Cylindrical Post printing constructs were crosslinked with 0.1M CaCl2
10.1039/c9fd00019d
  • Poly(alkyl glycidyl ether) triblock copolymer [20 wt%]
20 psi215 410 μm Conical
10.1007/s10544-018-0274-8
  • Gelatin [5 wt%]
100 kPa2510 160 μm Cylindrical Gelatin was crosslinked with 3 wt% microbial transglutaminase overnight at 37 C after printing
10.3389/fbioe.2020.00484
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [10 wt%]
35 kPa215 410 μm Conical Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells (4) Physically crosslinked for 10 minutes at 4C followed by UV photopolymerization
10.1021/acsami.9b19272
  • PEGDA [7.5 mM]
  • Ferric Chloride [22.5 mM]
300 kPa252 600 μm Cylindrical Bioink also contained 1.5M acrylic acid, 0.1M NaCl
10.1038/s41598-019-38972-2
  • Alginate [3 wt%]
  • PEGDA [10 wt%]
253 840 μm Cylindrical UV irradiation was employed for the duration of printing and 10 minutes post printing.
10.1016/j.actbio.2020.11.022
  • Hydroxypropyl Cellulose [5 wt%]
  • Iron Powder [35 wt%]
200 kPa255 410 μm Conical
10.1089/ten.TEC.2018.0293
  • PCL [100 wt%]
450 kPa254 210 μm Conical
10.1089/ten.TEC.2018.0293
  • PCL [98 wt%]
  • Lidocaine [2 wt%]
450 kPa254 410 μm Conical
10.1089/ten.TEC.2018.0293
  • PCL [96 wt%]
  • Lidocaine [4 wt%]
450 kPa254 210 μm Conical
10.1089/ten.TEC.2018.0293
  • PCL [99 wt%]
  • Silver Phosphate [1 wt%]
450 kPa254 410 μm Conical
10.1089/ten.TEC.2018.0293
  • PCL [97 wt%]
  • Silver Phosphate [3 wt%]
450 kPa254 210 μm Conical
10.1089/ten.TEC.2018.0293
  • PCL [93 wt%]
  • Lidocaine [4 wt%]
  • Silver Phosphate [3 wt%]
450 kPa254 410 μm Conical
10.1088/1758-5090/ab7553
  • Alginate [30 mg/ml]
  • Methylcellulose [30 mg/ml]
  • Agarose [10 mg/ml]
300 kPa25 830 μm Conical Immortalized Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells (10)
10.1088/1758-5090/ab7553
  • Alginate [30 mg/ml]
  • Methylcellulose [30 mg/ml]
  • Agarose [10 mg/ml]
150 kPa25 250 μm Conical Immortalized Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells (10)
10.1088/1758-5090/ab10ae
  • Carbopol [0.7 wt%]
40 kPa - 80 kPa232 - 4 250 μm Cylindrical
10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.08.180
  • Chitosan [10 wt%]
3.5 bar2510 250 Conical
10.1016/j.msec.2019.04.026
  • PCL [100 wt%]
80 psi - 100 psi1001 159 μm Cylindrical
10.1016/j.msec.2019.04.026
  • PCL [99.9 wt%]
  • Graphene Oxide [0.1 wt%]
80 psi - 100 psi1001 159 μm Cylindrical
10.1016/j.msec.2019.04.026
  • PCL [99.5 wt%]
  • Graphene Oxide [0.5 wt%]
80 psi - 100 psi1001 159 μm Cylindrical
10.1088/1758-5090/ab98e4
  • Alginate Oxidized [3.75 wt%]
  • Gelatin [7.5 wt%]
30 kPa - 40 kPa3010 330 μm Conical
10.1088/1758-5090/ab98e4
  • Alginate Oxidized [3.75 wt%]
  • Gelatin [7.5 wt%]
60 kPa3010 250 μm Conical
10.1016/j.actbio.2020.11.006
  • dECM Cardiac [4.6 wt%]
  • Laponite [2.3 wt%]
  • PEGDA [6 wt%]
9 psi25 25 Gauge Cylindrical Constructs were crosslinked with UV light for 30s
10.1016/j.actbio.2020.11.006
  • dECM Cardiac [4.6 wt%]
  • Laponite [2.3 wt%]
  • PEGDA [6 wt%]
8 psi25 22 Gauge Cylindrical Constructs were crosslinked with UV light for 30s
10.1021/acsami.9b11644
  • Gelatin [7 wt%]
  • Silk Fibroin [1.5 wt%]
15 kPa - 25 kPa46 - 8 250 μm Cylindrical Primary Porcine Chondrocytes (1)
10.1038/s41598-020-78977-w
  • PCL [100 wt%]
600 kPa1001.4 24 Gauge Cylindrical PCL molecular weight 43-50 kDa
10.1038/s41598-020-78977-w
  • PCL [99.5 wt%]
  • Graphene Oxide [0.5 wt%]
600 kPa1001.4 24 Gauge Cylindrical PCL molecular weight 43-50 kDa
10.1038/s41598-020-78977-w
  • PCL [99 wt%]
  • Graphene Oxide [1 wt%]
600 kPa1001.4 24 Gauge Cylindrical PCL molecular weight 43-50 kDa
10.1038/s41598-020-78977-w
  • PCL [97 wt%]
  • Graphene Oxide [3 wt%]
600 kPa1001.4 24 Gauge Cylindrical PCL molecular weight 43-50 kDa
10.3390/ma13030512
  • PCL [100 wt%]
6 bar9020 330 μm Cylindrical
10.3390/ma13030512
  • PCL [99.9 wt%]
  • Polyaniline [0.1 wt%]
6 bar9020 330 μm Cylindrical
10.3390/ma13030512
  • PCL [99 wt%]
  • Polyaniline [1 wt%]
6 bar9020 330 μm Cylindrical
10.3390/ma13030512
  • PCL [98 wt%]
  • Polyaniline [2 wt%]
6 bar9020 330 μm Cylindrical
10.1016/j.colsurfb.2019.06.069
  • Gelatin [15 wt%]
  • Alginate [2 wt%]
200 kPa307 330 μm Cylindrical Wharton's Jelly Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (1)
10.1016/j.colsurfb.2019.06.069
  • Gelatin [15 wt%]
  • Alginate [2 wt%]
200 kPa307 330 μm Cylindrical Human Amniotic Epithelial Cells (1)
10.1088/2057-1976/ab8fc6
  • Cellulose Nanofibers [5.34 wt%]
  • Alginate [2.67 wt%]
120 kPa2510 300 μm Scaffolds were cross-linked by 1 wt% CaCl2 solution for 20 min
10.1088/2057-1976/ab8fc6
  • Cellulose Nanofibers [7.4 wt%]
  • Alginate [0.74 wt%]
80 kPa2510 300 μm Scaffolds were cross-linked by 1 wt% CaCl2 solution for 20 min
10.1088/2057-1976/ab8fc6
  • Cellulose Nanocrystals [10 wt%]
  • Alginate [5 wt%]
140 kPa2510 300 μm Scaffolds were cross-linked by 1 wt% CaCl2 solution for 20 min
10.1088/2057-1976/ab8fc6
  • Cellulose Nanocrystals [16.67 wt%]
  • Alginate [1.667 wt%]
80 kPa2510 300 μm Scaffolds were cross-linked by 1 wt% CaCl2 solution for 20 min
10.1038/s41598-020-64049-6
  • PCL [100 wt%]
590 kPa - 610 kPa854 100 μm Cylindrical PCL molecular weight is 73,000
10.1038/s41598-020-64049-6
  • dECM Esophageal [1.5 wt%]
20 kPa - 40 kPa4 26 Gauge Cylindrical Human Esophageal Epithelial Cells (3.5) Hydrogels crosslinked by gelation at 37C
10.1038/s41598-020-64049-6
  • dECM Esophageal [2 wt%]
20 kPa - 40 kPa4 26 Gauge Cylindrical Human Esophageal Epithelial Cells (3.5) Hydrogels crosslinked by gelation at 37C
10.1038/s41598-020-64049-6
  • dECM Esophageal [1.5 wt%]
20 kPa - 40 kPa4 26 Gauge Cylindrical Human Esophageal Smooth Muscle Cells (3.5) Hydrogels crosslinked by gelation at 37C
10.1038/s41598-020-64049-6
  • dECM Esophageal [2 wt%]
20 kPa - 40 kPa4 26 Gauge Cylindrical Human Esophageal Smooth Muscle Cells (3.5) Hydrogels crosslinked by gelation at 37C
10.1021/acsami.0c07212
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [13 wt%]
225 kPa255 800 μm Cylindrical Bone Marrow Stromal Stem Cells (5) A coaxial extrusion system was implemented in which GelMA was the shell and peptide-functionalized, succinylated chistoan/dextran aldehyde was the core
10.3390/ma13020354
  • Alginate [4 wt%]
  • Hyaluronic Acid Oxidized [0.4 wt%]
25 psi21 - 238 210 μm Cylindrical FRESH printing method was implemented except the bath was frozen after printing
10.1088/1758-5090/8/1/015016
  • PCL [100 wt%]
2 bar7716 PCL molecular weight is 43,000 - 50,000
10.1016/j.tiv.2019.104606
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [7.5 wt%]
20 kPa10 22 Gauge Cylindrical Bovine Colon Organoids
10.3390/ijms19103129
  • Alginate [2 wt%]
  • Gelatin [3 wt%]
  • dECM Human Lung [1 mg/ml]
10 kPa - 20 kPa25 22 Gauge Conical Cell Line HepaRG (7)
10.3390/ijms19103129
  • Alginate [2 wt%]
  • Gelatin [3 wt%]
  • dECM Human Lung [0.5 mg/ml]
10 kPa - 20 kPa25 22 Gauge Conical Cell Line HepaRG (7)
10.1021/acsami.0c05096
  • Gelatin Carbohydrazide [6 wt%]
12 kPa - 15 kPa375 - 10 Cylindrical Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (1) The bioink was directly extruded into a slurry bath consisting of oxidized alginate and gelatin microparticles
10.1021/acsami.0c05096
  • Gelatin Carbohydrazide [6 wt%]
12 kPa - 15 kPa375 - 10 Cylindrical Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells (10) The bioink was directly extruded into a slurry bath consisting of Oxidized alginate and gelatin microparticles
10.3390/jfb9040057
  • Calcium Phosphate [4.27 wt%]
  • Kappa Carrageenan [2.8 wt%]
0.5 bar - 2 bar7 23 Gauge Cylindrical
10.1021/acsami.0c18608
  • Alginate Methacrylated [5 wt%]
0.4 bar255 330 μm Cylindrical
10.1021/acsbiomaterials.6b00170
  • PDMS [100 wt%]
2520 400 μm Cylindrical PDMS was printed into a carbopol bath.
10.1088/1758-5090/aac70b
  • Collagen [3 mg/ml]
15 kPa413.75 610 μm Conical HEPG2 Liver Cells (20)
10.1088/1748-605X/ab38c6
  • PCL [100 wt%]
660 kPa1052 Cylindrical PCL had amolecular weight of 43,000 g/mol
10.1007/s10856-018-6211-9
  • Alginate [3 wt%]
  • Methylcellulose [9 wt%]
70 kPa - 80 kPa10 610 μm Conical Primary Bovine Chondrocytes (5) γ-irradiated bioink experienced lower viscosity, resulting in change in printing parameters
10.1007/s10856-018-6211-9
  • Alginate [3 wt%]
  • Methylcellulose [9 wt%]
65 kPa10 450 μm Conical Primary Bovine Chondrocytes (5) γ-irradiated bioink experienced lower viscosity, resulting in change in printing parameters
10.1021/acsami.8b13166
  • Alginate [3 wt%]
  • Gellan Gum [3.5 wt%]
35 kPa - 40 kPa2510 - 20 410 μm Conical
10.1021/acsami.8b13166
  • Alginate [3 wt%]
  • Gellan Gum [3.5 wt%]
  • Aminated Silicate Nanoparticles [6 wt%]
40 kPa - 50 kPa2510 - 20 410 μm Conical
10.1088/1758-5090/8/3/035012
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [10 wt%]
100 psi258 200 μm Cylindrical NIH 3T3 Fibroblasts (0.5) Bioink was allowed to cool at 25C to physically crosslink before printing
10.1088/1758-5090/8/3/035012
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [15 wt%]
100 psi - 110 psi258 200 μm Cylindrical Bioink was allowed to cool at 25C to physically crosslink before printing
10.1088/1758-5090/8/3/035012
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [20 wt%]
130 psi258 200 μm Cylindrical Bioink was allowed to cool at 25C to physically crosslink before printing
10.1080/03008207.2019.1624733
  • PCL [100 wt%]
600 kPa1200.4 200 μm
10.1021/acsnano.5b01179
  • Graphene [75 wt%]
  • PLG [25 wt%]
5 bar2510 - 45 100 μm Conical PLG stands for polylactide-co-glycolide
10.1021/acsnano.5b01179
  • Graphene [75 wt%]
  • PLG [25 wt%]
0.5 bar2510 - 45 1000 μm Conical PLG stands for polylactide-co-glycolide
10.1021/acsbiomaterials.8b00964
  • SC 5050 Polyester [100 wt%]
2.7 bar300.5 410 μm Conical SC5050 is a polyester comprised of equimolar ratios of soybean oil and coumarin.
10.1021/acsbiomaterials.8b00964
  • SC 5050 Polyester [98 wt%]
  • Dexamethosone [2 wt%]
4.3 bar480.5 410 μm Conical SC5050 is a polyester comprised of equimolar ratios of soybean oil and coumarin.
10.1021/acsbiomaterials.8b00964
  • SC 5050 Polyester [94 wt%]
  • Dexamethosone [6 wt%]
4.7 bar520.5 410 μm Conical SC5050 is a polyester comprised of equimolar ratios of soybean oil and coumarin.
10.1039/d0bm01784a
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [6 wt%]
  • Gelatin [3.6 wt%]
3.5 bar278 27 Gauge Cylindrical Human Dermal Fibroblasts (1)
10.1039/d0bm01784a
  • Ulvan Methacrylated [2 wt%]
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [4 wt%]
  • Gelatin [3.6 wt%]
3.5 bar258 27 Gauge Cylindrical Human Dermal Fibroblasts (1) Ulvan is a sulfated algal polysaccharide
10.1039/d0bm01784a
  • Ulvan Methacrylated [4 wt%]
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [2 wt%]
  • Gelatin [3.6 wt%]
3.5 bar258 27 Gauge Cylindrical Human Dermal Fibroblasts (1) Ulvan is a sulfated algal polysaccharide
10.1039/d0bm01784a
  • Ulvan Methacrylated [6 wt%]
  • Gelatin [3.6 wt%]
3 bar228 27 Gauge Cylindrical Human Dermal Fibroblasts (1) Ulvan is a sulfated algal polysaccharide
10.1089/ten.TEC.2012.0383
  • Soy Protein [20 wt%]
  • Glycerol [4 wt%]
0.8 bar - 2 bar2735 200 μm
10.1016/j.reth.2021.01.001
  • PCL [40 wt%]
  • Beta Tricalcium Phosphate [2.5 wt%]
100 kPa - 150 kPa255 - 8 Cylindrical The bioink was prepared in 1, 4-dioxane to achieve desired extrudability
10.1016/j.reth.2021.01.001
  • PCL [40 wt%]
  • Beta Tricalcium Phosphate [2.5 wt%]
  • Icariin [0.16 wt%]
100 kPa - 150 kPa255 - 8 Cylindrical The bioink was prepared in 1, 4-dioxane to achieve desired extrudability
10.1016/j.reth.2021.01.001
  • PCL [40 wt%]
  • Beta Tricalcium Phosphate [2.5 wt%]
  • Icariin [0.32 wt%]
100 kPa - 150 kPa255 - 8 Cylindrical The bioink was prepared in 1, 4-dioxane to achieve desired extrudability
10.1016/j.reth.2021.01.001
  • PCL [40 wt%]
  • Beta Tricalcium Phosphate [2.5 wt%]
  • Icariin [0.64 wt%]
100 kPa - 150 kPa255 - 8 Cylindrical The bioink was prepared in 1, 4-dioxane to achieve desired extrudability
10.1016/j.dental.2016.11.012
  • Tricalcium Phosphate [83 wt%]
  • Stearic Acid [17 wt%]
8015 1000 μm Cylindrical
10.1088/1758-5090/abec2d
  • Xanthan Gum [5 wt%]
35 kPa - 40 kPa252 410 μm Cylindrical
10.1088/1758-5090/abec2d
  • Xanthan Gum [8 wt%]
60 kPa - 80 kPa252 410 μm Cylindrical
10.1088/1758-5090/abec2d
  • Xanthan Gum Methacrylated [3 wt%]
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [3 wt%]
70 kPa - 90 kPa252 410 μm Cylindrical C2C12 Myoblasts (3)
10.1088/1758-5090/abec2d
  • Xanthan Gum Methacrylated [5 wt%]
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [5 wt%]
100 kPa - 120 kPa252 410 μm Cylindrical C2C12 Myoblasts (3)
10.1088/1758-5090/8/1/015015
  • Collagen [14 wt%]
1 bar250.3 610 μm Cylindrical
10.1007/s10439-016-1648-9
  • Alginate [4 wt%]
82.7 kPa25 14 Gauge Cylindrical Alginate was dispensed as a sheath with CaCl2 at 2wt%, extruded through the core section. The constructs were crosslinked with 4 wt% CaCl2 overnight
10.1007/s10439-021-02736-9
  • Polypropylene fumarate (PPF) [90 wt%]
  • Diethyl fumarate (DEF) [10 wt%]
7 bar370.1 22 Gauge Cylindrical BAPO crosslinker was included in the bioink mix
10.1007/s10439-021-02736-9
  • Polypropylene fumarate (PPF) [88 wt%]
  • Diethyl fumarate (DEF) [10 wt%]
  • PLGA [2 wt%]
4.5 bar - 6.5 bar370.3 - 2.5 22 Gauge Cylindrical BAPO crosslinker was included in the bioink mix. PLGA is composed of 50:50 LA:GA
10.1007/s10439-021-02736-9
  • Polypropylene fumarate (PPF) [88 wt%]
  • Diethyl fumarate (DEF) [10 wt%]
  • PLGA [2 wt%]
  • BMP-2 [0.001 wt%]
6.5 bar - 7.2 bar370.8 - 0.8 22 Gauge Cylindrical BAPO crosslinker was included in the bioink mix. PLGA is composed of 50:50 LA:GA
10.1007/s10439-021-02736-9
  • Polypropylene fumarate (PPF) [90 wt%]
  • Diethyl fumarate (DEF) [10 wt%]
1 bar - 2 bar600.4 - 1 22 Gauge Cylindrical BAPO crosslinker was included in the bioink mix
10.1007/s10439-021-02736-9
  • Polypropylene fumarate (PPF) [88 wt%]
  • Diethyl fumarate (DEF) [10 wt%]
  • PLGA [2 wt%]
0.3 bar - 0.5 bar600.8 - 1.2 22 Gauge Cylindrical BAPO crosslinker was included in the bioink mix. PLGA is composed of 50:50 LA:GA
10.1007/s10439-021-02736-9
  • Polypropylene fumarate (PPF) [88 wt%]
  • Diethyl fumarate (DEF) [10 wt%]
  • PLGA [2 wt%]
  • BMP-2 [0.001 wt%]
1 bar - 2.4 bar600.2 - 1 22 Gauge Cylindrical BAPO crosslinker was included in the bioink mix. PLGA is composed of 50:50 LA:GA
10.1007/s10439-021-02736-9
  • Polypropylene fumarate (PPF) [90 wt%]
  • Diethyl fumarate (DEF) [10 wt%]
0.2 bar902 - 2.5 22 Gauge Cylindrical BAPO crosslinker was included in the bioink mix
10.1007/s10439-021-02736-9
  • Polypropylene fumarate (PPF) [88 wt%]
  • Diethyl fumarate (DEF) [10 wt%]
  • PLGA [2 wt%]
0.1 bar - 0.5 bar902 - 2.6 22 Gauge Cylindrical BAPO crosslinker was included in the bioink mix. PLGA is composed of 50:50 LA:GA
10.1007/s10439-021-02736-9
  • Polypropylene fumarate (PPF) [88 wt%]
  • Diethyl fumarate (DEF) [10 wt%]
  • PLGA [2 wt%]
  • BMP-2 [0.001 wt%]
0.2 bar - 0.4 bar902.2 22 Gauge Cylindrical BAPO crosslinker was included in the bioink mix. PLGA is composed of 50:50 LA:GA
10.3390/mi12020195
  • Alginate [2 wt%]
  • Cellulose Nanocrystals [4 wt%]
12 psi7 30 Gauge Cylindrical NIH 3T3 Fibroblasts (3) Constrcust crosslinkd with 2 wt% CaCl2
10.3390/mi12020195
  • Alginate [2 wt%]
  • Cellulose Nanofibrils Oxidized [1 wt%]
20 psi7 30 Gauge Cylindrical NIH 3T3 Fibroblasts (3) Constrcust crosslinkd with 2 wt% CaCl2
10.1016/j.ijpharm.2021.120330
  • Lidocaine [30 wt%]
  • PCL [70 wt%]
125 kPa1101 610 μm Cylindrical PCL molecular weight of 50,000 g/mol
10.1016/j.ijpharm.2021.120330
  • Lidocaine [5 wt%]
  • PCL [95 wt%]
125 kPa1101 610 μm Cylindrical PCL molecular weight of 50,000 g/mol
10.1016/j.ijpharm.2021.120330
  • PCL [100 wt%]
400 kPa1101 610 μm Cylindrical PCL molecular weight of 50,000 g/mol
10.1016/j.actbio.2021.01.021
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [15 wt%]
  • Platelet Lysate [50 vol%]
2.6 bar1910 200 μm Cylindrical Human Dermal Fibroblasts (1)
10.1088/1748-605X/abe55e
  • Alginate Dialdehyde [30 wt%]
  • Laponite [12 wt%]
130 kPa252 410 μm Conical
10.3389/fbioe.2020.00400
  • Chitosan [2 wt%]
  • Gelatin [4 wt%]
2.5 bar2010 330 μm Cylindrical Crosslinked with 10 w/v % tripolyphosphate at 4 C for 60 minutes post printing
10.3389/fbioe.2020.00400
  • Chitosan [2 wt%]
  • Gelatin [6 wt%]
2.5 bar2010 330 μm Cylindrical Crosslinked with 10 w/v % tripolyphosphate at 4 C for 60 minutes post printing
10.1016/j.colsurfb.2018.08.006
  • Alginate [1 wt%]
  • Gelatin [10 wt%]
  • Fibrinogen [1 wt%]
  • Transglutamin [1 wt%]
253.5 260 μm Cylindrical GSC23 Human Glioma Stem Cells (0.1)
10.1002/adhm.201601451
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [3 wt%]
216.667 27 Gauge Cylindrical Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (4) Bioprinted constructs were crosslinked for 30s at a power of 3.95 W/cm2
10.1002/adhm.201601451
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [4 wt%]
216.667 27 Gauge Cylindrical Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (4) Bioprinted constructs were crosslinked for 30s at a power of 3.95 W/cm2
10.1002/adhm.201601451
  • Gelatin Methacrylated [5 wt%]
216.667 27 Gauge Cylindrical Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (4) Bioprinted constructs were crosslinked for 30s at a power of 3.95 W/cm2
10.1016/j.msec.2020.111433
  • PCL [100 wt%]
6 bar14011.75 PCL MW = 50 kDa
10.1016/j.msec.2020.111433
  • PCL [90 wt%]
  • Silk Microparticles [10 wt%]
6 bar14012.75 PCL MW = 50 kDa
10.1016/j.msec.2020.111433
  • PCL [80 wt%]
  • Silk Microparticles [20 wt%]
6 bar14013.25 PCL MW = 50 kDa
10.1016/j.msec.2020.111433
  • PCL [70 wt%]
  • Silk Microparticles [30 wt%]
6 bar14013.75 PCL MW = 50 kDa
10.1016/j.biomaterials.2020.120302
  • PCL [100 wt%]
9 bar25 410 μm Conical A bioink paste was created by mixing the materials with dichloromethane, 2-BU-1-(4- (diethylamino) anilino)-3-me-pyrido(1,2-a) benzimidazole - 4 - carbonitrile, and dibutyl phthalate in a ratio of 10:2:1 wt%.
10.1016/j.biomaterials.2020.120302
  • PCL [50 wt%]
  • Magnesium Phosphate [50 wt%]
9 bar25 410 μm Conical A bioink paste was created by mixing the materials with dichloromethane, 2-BU-1-(4- (diethylamino) anilino)-3-me-pyrido(1,2-a) benzimidazole - 4 - carbonitrile, and dibutyl phthalate in a ratio of 10:2:1 wt%.
10.1016/j.biomaterials.2020.120302
  • PCL [40 wt%]
  • Magnesium Phosphate [60 wt%]
9 bar25 410 μm Conical A bioink paste was created by mixing the materials with dichloromethane, 2-BU-1-(4- (diethylamino) anilino)-3-me-pyrido(1,2-a) benzimidazole - 4 - carbonitrile, and dibutyl phthalate in a ratio of 10:2:1 wt%.
10.1016/j.biomaterials.2020.120302
  • PCL [30 wt%]
  • Magnesium Phosphate [70 wt%]
9 bar25 410 μm Conical A bioink paste was created by mixing the materials with dichloromethane, 2-BU-1-(4- (diethylamino) anilino)-3-me-pyrido(1,2-a) benzimidazole - 4 - carbonitrile, and dibutyl phthalate in a ratio of 10:2:1 wt%.
10.1007/s10856-018-6071-3
  • Polyethylene oxide Terephthalate [55 wt%]
  • Poly(butylene terephthalate) [45 wt%]
5 bar2003.26667 250 μm Cylindrical
10.1007/s10856-018-6071-3
  • Polyethylene oxide Terephthalate [55 wt%]
  • Poly(butylene terephthalate) [45 wt%]
5 bar2000.9333 200 μm Cylindrical
10.1089/ten.TEA.2019.0237
  • PCL [90 wt%]
  • Hydroxyapatite [10 wt%]
3.5 1.5110 - 1308 700 μm Cylindrical
10.1089/ten.TEA.2019.0237
  • PCL [80 wt%]
  • Hydroxyapatite [20 wt%]
4.5 2.5120 - 1308 700 μm Cylindrical
10.1089/ten.TEA.2019.0237
  • PCL [70 wt%]
  • Hydroxyapatite [30 wt%]
4.5 3.5120 - 1308 700 μm Cylindrical
10.1088/1758-5090/abcf8d
  • Strontium Iron Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles [20 wt%]
  • PCL [25 wt%]
258 1500 μm Cylindrical PCL and nanoparticles were dissolved in glacial acetic acid. Bioink extrusion speed was 0.006 mm/s
10.1039/c9nr05894j
  • Silver Nanoparticles [46 wt%]
  • Silver Microflakes [46 wt%]
40 psi25 200 μm Conical Silver nanoparticles were dissolved in poly(acrylic acid) and distilled water
10.21873/invivo.11205
  • PCL [80 wt%]
  • Beta Tricalcium Phosphate [20 wt%]
650 kPa120 300 μm Cylindrical
10.1016/j.ijpharm.2018.11.044
  • Diclofenac Sodium [20 wt%]
  • Lactose [10 wt%]
  • Polyplasdone [2 wt%]
  • Carbopol [1 wt%]
2.58 bar2510 400 μm Conical Insoluble Fillers of AvicelPH101 and AvicelPH105 were used. They had a concentration of 37.8wt% and 25.2wt% ,respectively.
10.1016/j.ijpharm.2018.11.044
  • Diclofenac Sodium [20 wt%]
  • Lactose [10 wt%]
  • Polyplasdone [2 wt%]
  • Carbopol [3 wt%]
2.51 bar2510 600 μm Conical Insoluble Fillers of AvicelPH101 and AvicelPH105 were used. They had a concentration of 37.8wt% and 25.2wt% ,respectively.
10.1016/j.ijpharm.2018.11.044
  • Diclofenac Sodium [20 wt%]
  • Lactose [10 wt%]
  • Polyplasdone [8 wt%]
  • Carbopol [1 wt%]
2.73 bar2510 400 μm Conical Insoluble Fillers of AvicelPH101 and AvicelPH105 were used. They had a concentration of 34.2wt% and 22.8wt% ,respectively.
10.1016/j.ijpharm.2018.11.044
  • Diclofenac Sodium [20 wt%]
  • Lactose [10 wt%]
  • Polyplasdone [8 wt%]
  • Carbopol [3 wt%]
3.69 bar2510 600 μm Conical Insoluble Fillers of AvicelPH101 and AvicelPH105 were used. They had a concentration of 34.2wt% and 22.8wt% ,respectively.
10.1016/j.ijpharm.2018.11.044
  • Diclofenac Sodium [20 wt%]
  • Lactose [30 wt%]
  • Polyplasdone [2 wt%]
  • Carbopol [1 wt%]
0.65 bar2510 600 μm Conical Insoluble Fillers of AvicelPH101 and AvicelPH105 were used. They had a concentration of 25.8wt% and 17.2wt% ,respectively.
10.1016/j.ijpharm.2018.11.044
  • Diclofenac Sodium [20 wt%]
  • Lactose [30 wt%]
  • Polyplasdone [2 wt%]
  • Carbopol [3 wt%]
2.26 bar2510 400 μm Conical Insoluble Fillers of AvicelPH101 and AvicelPH105 were used. They had a concentration of 25.8wt% and 17.2wt% ,respectively.
10.1016/j.ijpharm.2018.11.044
  • Diclofenac Sodium [20 wt%]
  • Lactose [30 wt%]
  • Polyplasdone [8 wt%]
  • Carbopol [1 wt%]
0.97 bar2510 600 μm Conical Insoluble Fillers of AvicelPH101 and AvicelPH105 were used. They had a concentration of 22.2wt% and 14.8wt% ,respectively.
10.1016/j.ijpharm.2018.11.044
  • Diclofenac Sodium [20 wt%]
  • Lactose [30 wt%]
  • Polyplasdone [8 wt%]
  • Carbopol [3 wt%]
3.36 bar2510 400 μm Conical Insoluble Fillers of AvicelPH101 and AvicelPH105 were used. They had a concentration of 22.2wt% and 14.8wt% ,respectively.
10.1016/j.ijpharm.2018.11.044
  • Diclofenac Sodium [35 wt%]
  • Lactose [20 wt%]
  • Polyplasdone [5 wt%]
  • Carbopol [2 wt%]
2.17 bar2510 500 μm Conical Insoluble Fillers of AvicelPH101 and AvicelPH105 were used. They had a concentration of 21wt% and 14wt% ,respectively.
10.1016/j.ijpharm.2018.11.044
  • Diclofenac Sodium [35 wt%]
  • Lactose [20 wt%]
  • Polyplasdone [5 wt%]
  • Carbopol [2 wt%]
2.18 bar2510 500 μm Conical Insoluble Fillers of AvicelPH101 and AvicelPH105 were used. They had a concentration of 21wt% and 14wt% ,respectively.
10.1016/j.ijpharm.2018.11.044
  • Diclofenac Sodium [35 wt%]
  • Lactose [20 wt%]
  • Polyplasdone [5 wt%]
  • Carbopol [2 wt%]
2.11 bar2510 500 μm Conical Insoluble Fillers of AvicelPH101 and AvicelPH105 were used. They had a concentration of 21wt% and 14wt% ,respectively.
10.1016/j.ijpharm.2018.11.044
  • Diclofenac Sodium [50 wt%]
  • Lactose [10 wt%]
  • Polyplasdone [2 wt%]
  • Carbopol [1 wt%]
1.54 bar2510 600 μm Conical Insoluble Fillers of AvicelPH101 and AvicelPH105 were used. They had a concentration of 19.8wt% and 13.2wt% ,respectively.
10.1016/j.ijpharm.2018.11.044
  • Diclofenac Sodium [50 wt%]
  • Lactose [10 wt%]
  • Polyplasdone [2 wt%]
  • Carbopol [3 wt%]
2.37 bar2510 400 μm Conical Insoluble Fillers of AvicelPH101 and AvicelPH105 were used. They had a concentration of 19.8wt% and 13.2wt% ,respectively.
10.1016/j.ijpharm.2018.11.044
  • Diclofenac Sodium [50 wt%]
  • Lactose [10 wt%]
  • Polyplasdone [8 wt%]
  • Carbopol [1 wt%]
1.15 bar2510 600 μm Conical Insoluble Fillers of AvicelPH101 and AvicelPH105 were used. They had a concentration of 16.2wt% and 10.8wt% ,respectively.
10.1016/j.ijpharm.2018.11.044
  • Diclofenac Sodium [50 wt%]
  • Lactose [10 wt%]
  • Polyplasdone [8 wt%]
  • Carbopol [3 wt%]
2.83 bar2510 400 μm Conical Insoluble Fillers of AvicelPH101 and AvicelPH105 were used. They had a concentration of 16.2wt% and 10.8wt% ,respectively.
10.1016/j.ijpharm.2018.11.044
  • Diclofenac Sodium [50 wt%]
  • Lactose [30 wt%]
  • Polyplasdone [2 wt%]
  • Carbopol [1 wt%]
0.57 bar2510 400 μm Conical Insoluble Fillers of AvicelPH101 and AvicelPH105 were used. They had a concentration of 7.8wt% and 5.2wt% ,respectively.
10.1016/j.ijpharm.2018.11.044
  • Diclofenac Sodium [50 wt%]
  • Lactose [30 wt%]
  • Polyplasdone [2 wt%]
  • Carbopol [3 wt%]
0.86 bar2510 600 μm Conical Insoluble Fillers of AvicelPH101 and AvicelPH105 were used. They had a concentration of 7.8wt% and 5.2wt% ,respectively.
10.1016/j.ijpharm.2018.11.044
  • Diclofenac Sodium [50 wt%]
  • Lactose [30 wt%]
  • Polyplasdone [8 wt%]
  • Carbopol [1 wt%]
0.7 bar2510 400 μm Conical Insoluble Fillers of AvicelPH101 and AvicelPH105 were used. They had a concentration of 4.2wt% and 2.8wt% ,respectively.
10.1016/j.ijpharm.2018.11.044
  • Diclofenac Sodium [50 wt%]
  • Lactose [30 wt%]
  • Polyplasdone [8 wt%]
  • Carbopol [3 wt%]
1.05 bar2510 600 μm Conical Insoluble Fillers of AvicelPH101 and AvicelPH105 were used. They had a concentration of 4.2wt% and 2.8wt% ,respectively.
10.1016/j.ejps.2020.105266
  • Levetiracetam [23.4 wt%]
  • Polyvinyl acetate / Polyvinyl Pyrrolidone [25.9 wt%]
  • Silicon dioxide [10 wt%]
  • Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose [5 wt%]
1.8 bar2725 Conical
10.1016/j.ejps.2020.105266
  • Levetiracetam [23.4 wt%]
  • Polyvinyl acetate / Polyvinyl Pyrrolidone [20.9 wt%]
  • Silicon dioxide [10 wt%]
  • Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose [10 wt%]
2.2 bar2725 Conical
10.1016/j.ejps.2020.105266
  • Levetiracetam [23.4 wt%]
  • Polyvinyl acetate / Polyvinyl Pyrrolidone [15.9 wt%]
  • Silicon dioxide [10 wt%]
  • Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose [15 wt%]
2.8 bar2725 Conical
10.1039/c8nr06369a
  • Graphene Oxide [1 mg/ml]
  • Silver Nanowire [1 mg/ml]
0.6 bar - 2 bar254 - 10 400 μm Cylindrical
10.1039/c8nr06369a
  • Mxene [1 mg/ml]
  • Silver Nanowire [1 mg/ml]
0.6 bar - 2 bar254 - 10 400 μm Cylindrical
10.1021/acsami.9b07433
  • PDMS [100 wt%]
20 psi251 150 μm Cylindrical Printed into 6 wt% fumed silica bath. PDMS: crosslinker ratio of 5:1. Construct was heated at 80C for 40 mins for crosslinkig
10.1021/acsami.9b07433
  • PDMS [100 wt%]
25 psi253 250 μm Cylindrical Printed into 6 wt% fumed silica bath. PDMS: crosslinker ratio of 5:1. Construct was heated at 80C for 40 mins for crosslinkig
10.1021/acsami.9b07433
  • SU-8 2050 [100 wt%]
30 psi250.5 200 μm Cylindrical Printed into 6 wt% fumed silica bath. SU-8 was crosslinked with UV light for 15 mins
10.1016/j.ijpharm.2018.01.024
  • Paracetamol [48.48 wt%]
  • Polyvinyl Pyrrolidone [6.82 wt%]
  • Croscarmellose Sodium [5.3]
1.8 bar236 400 μm Conical
10.1631/jzus.B1900190
  • Gelatin [100 mg/ml]
  • Alginate [20 mg/ml]
0.5 bar - 0.8 bar25 250 μm Cylindrical Human Corneal Epithelial Cells (2) Crosslinked with CaCl2
10.1016/j.ijpharm.2017.11.016
  • Silopren UV LSR 2030 PDMS [99.5 wt%]
  • Prednisolone [0.5 wt%]
414 kpa251 514 μm Cylindrical Silopren UV LSR 2030 is UV-curable PDMS
10.1016/j.ijpharm.2017.11.016
  • Silopren UV LSR 2030 PDMS [99 wt%]
  • Prednisolone [1 wt%]
414 kpa251 514 μm Cylindrical Silopren UV LSR 2030 is UV-curable PDMS
10.1016/j.ijpharm.2017.11.016
  • Silopren UV LSR 2030 PDMS [98.5 wt%]
  • Prednisolone [1.5 wt%]
414 kpa251 514 μm Cylindrical Silopren UV LSR 2030 is UV-curable PDMS
10.1016/j.ejps.2020.105291
  • Chocolate [50 wt%]
  • Corn syrup [50 wt%]
204.8 kPa455 2000 μm Cylindrical
10.1016/j.ejps.2020.105291
  • Chocolate [48.85 wt%]
  • Corn syrup [48.85 wt%]
  • Paracetamol [2.3 wt%]
204.8 kPa455 2000 μm Cylindrical
10.1016/j.ejps.2020.105291
  • Chocolate [49.02 wt%]
  • Corn syrup [49.02 wt%]
  • Ibuprofen [1.96 wt%]
204.8 kPa455 2000 μm Cylindrical
10.1208/s12249-018-1107-z
  • Paracetamol [58.94 wt%]
  • Polyvinyl Pyrrolidone [7.27 wt%]
  • Starch [6.06 wt%]
  • Croscarmellose Sodium [0.45 wt%]
1.8 bar256 600 um Conical The bioink paste was prepared in water
10.1016/j.ijpharm.2020.119405
  • Polyethylene oxide [82.3 wt%]
  • Pluronic F68 [8.2 wt%]
  • Citric acid [1.3 wt%]
  • Aripiprazole [8.2 wt%]
350 kPa1405 400 um Cylindrical The paper also discussed other ink formulations that printed successfully
10.1016/j.jfma.2020.10.022
  • Hydroxyapatite [90 wt%]
  • PLGA [10 wt%]
240 kPa - 250 kPa251 Bioink was a slurry "Hyperelastic Bone" purchased from Allevi Inc.
10.1016/j.medengphy.2019.04.009
  • PCL [70 wt%]
  • Bioactive Glass [30 wt%]
3 bar1052 330 um Cylindrical PCL MW = 80 kDa. The bioacive glass (BGMIX-Mg) was mixed with PCL in solvents and pelletized prior to print
10.1021/acsnano.9b07325
  • Mxene [100 wt%]
4 psi253 230 um Cylindrical Bioink was Ti3C2Tx. Needle size was varied between 230 - 600 um for different filament diameters
10.1021/acsnano.9b07325
  • Mxene [100 wt%]
4 psi253 600 um Cylindrical Bioink was Ti3C2Tx. Needle size was varied between 230 - 600 um for different filament diameters
10.1021/acsami.7b07717
  • Graphene Oxide [17.25 mg/mL]
236 - 12 510 um Cylindrical
10.1002/adma.201705651
  • Graphene Oxide [100 mg/mL]
251 203.2 um Cylindrical The solvent used was DI water and the constructs were freeze dried
10.1016/j.msec.2020.111299
  • Alginate [15 wt%]
  • Hydroxyapatite [12 wt%]
10 bar259 Conical Microneedles were 3D printed and crosslinked with CaCl2
10.1016/j.msec.2020.111299
  • Alginate [15 wt%]
  • Hydroxyapatite [8 wt%]
10 bar259 Conical Microneedles were 3D printed and crosslinked with CaCl2
10.1016/j.msec.2020.111299
  • Alginate [15 wt%]
  • Hydroxyapatite [4 wt%]
10 bar259 Conical Microneedles were 3D printed and crosslinked with CaCl2
10.1016/j.msec.2020.111299
  • Alginate [15 wt%]
10 bar259 Conical Microneedles were 3D printed and crosslinked with CaCl2
10.1002/jbm.b.34628
  • Alginate [3.25 wt%]
  • Gelatin [4 wt%]
  • Collagen [5 mg/mL]
14 kPa - 18 kPa23 - 24 22 Gauge Conical Human corneal keratocytes (3)
10.3390/pharmaceutics12080692
  • Polyethylene oxide [100 wt%]
450 kPa - 500 kPa1004 400 um Cylindrical PEO Mol Wt = 100 kDa
10.3390/pharmaceutics12080692
  • Polyethylene oxide [90 wt%]
  • Poly(vinylpyrrolidone-co-vinyl acetate) [10 wt%]
450 kPa - 500 kPa125 - 1304 400 um Cylindrical PEO Mol Wt = 100 kDa
10.3390/pharmaceutics12080692
  • Polyethylene oxide [80 wt%]
  • Poly(vinylpyrrolidone-co-vinyl acetate) [20 wt%]
450 kPa - 500 kPa135 - 1404 400 um Cylindrical PEO Mol Wt = 100 kDa
10.3390/pharmaceutics12080692
  • Polyethylene oxide [70 wt%]
  • Poly(vinylpyrrolidone-co-vinyl acetate) [30 wt%]
450 kPa - 500 kPa145 - 1504 400 um Cylindrical PEO Mol Wt = 100 kDa
10.3390/pharmaceutics12080692
  • Polyethylene oxide [75 wt%]
  • Poly(vinylpyrrolidone-co-vinyl acetate) [20 wt%]
  • Olanzapine [5 wt%]
450 kPa - 500 kPa1604 400 um Cylindrical
10.3390/pharmaceutics12080692
  • Polyethylene oxide [70 wt%]
  • Poly(vinylpyrrolidone-co-vinyl acetate) [20 wt%]
  • Olanzapine [5 wt%]
  • Pluronic F127 [5 wt%]
450 kPa - 500 kPa1604 400 um Cylindrical
10.3390/pharmaceutics12080692
  • Polyethylene oxide [70 wt%]
  • Poly(vinylpyrrolidone-co-vinyl acetate) [20 wt%]
  • Olanzapine [5 wt%]
  • Poloxamer 188 [5 wt%]
450 kPa - 500 kPa1604 400 um Cylindrical
10.1088/1758-5090/aa71c8
  • PCL [100 wt%]
700 kPa80 250 um Cylindrical PCL Mol Wt = 70 - 90 kDa
10.1016/j.ijpharm.2019.04.018
  • Polyvinyl Alcohol [15 wt%]
15 psi258 21 Gauge Cylindrical PVA Mol Wt = 27,000. PVA was dissolved in a solvent mixture of ethanol:water at 1:1 w/w
10.1016/j.ijpharm.2019.04.018
  • Polyvinyl Alcohol [17.5 wt%]
15 psi258 21 Gauge Cylindrical PVA Mol Wt = 27,000. PVA was dissolved in a solvent mixture of ethanol:water at 1:1 w/w
10.1016/j.ijpharm.2019.04.018
  • Polyvinyl Alcohol [18 wt%]
15 psi258 21 Gauge Cylindrical PVA Mol Wt = 27,000. PVA was dissolved in a solvent mixture of ethanol:water at 1:1 w/w
10.1016/j.ijpharm.2019.04.018
  • Polyvinyl Alcohol [19 wt%]
15 psi258 21 Gauge Cylindrical PVA Mol Wt = 27,000. PVA was dissolved in a solvent mixture of ethanol:water at 1:1 w/w
10.1016/j.ijpharm.2019.04.018
  • Hydroxypropyl Cellulose [12 wt%]
10 psi258 21 Gauge Cylindrical HPC was dissolved in a solvent mixture of ethanol:water at 1:1 w/w. 18 and 20 wt% HPC bioink was printable but too viscous
10.1016/j.ijpharm.2019.04.018
  • Hydroxypropyl Cellulose [14 wt%]
10 psi258 21 Gauge Cylindrical HPC was dissolved in a solvent mixture of ethanol:water at 1:1 w/w. 18 and 20 wt% HPC bioink was printable but too viscous
10.1016/j.ijpharm.2019.04.018
  • Hydroxypropyl Cellulose [16 wt%]
  • Warfarin Sodium [1.3 wt%]
10.4 psi258 21 Gauge Cylindrical HPC was dissolved in a solvent mixture of ethanol:water at 1:1 w/w. 18 and 20 wt% HPC bioink was printable but too viscous

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